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On 25 September 1911 the battleship Liberté exploded in Toulon harbour. This tragedy is just one of the many disasters that the French fleet suffered at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries and also represents the peak of these calamities, since it is undoubtedly the most deadly suffered by a French Navy ship in peacetime. The aim of this article is to study how the navy managed this disaster and the resulting deaths of service personnel, which were all the more traumatic because the incident happened in France’s main military port and in circumstances that do not match the traditional forms of death at sea.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Nekau II and Psamtek II

, Psamtek, who succeeded him, and three daughters, Isetemkheb, Meryetnebti and Meryetneithites. They are known from a fragmentary naophorous statue dedicated to their tutor, the chief of the antechamber, Neferibrenefer.36 Nekau survived to perform the rituals for the burial of the Apis bull in 594 BC37 and died later in the same year. He was reputedly buried within the precinct of the temple of Neith at Sais,38 a location perhaps supported by a scarab allegedly found there.39 The Saite navy Dedicated fighting ships had been part of the Egyptian navy since at least the 20

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
The last Saite ruler, Psamtek III

loyalty to Persia.5 Cambyses was further aided by the Phoenician cities and Cyprus, who with their large fleets also surrendered to the Persians, resulting in Egypt becoming isolated, and its naval strength seriously depleted. Undoubtedly these states that recognised the might of the Persian Empire supported the side which they perceived to be the stronger. For Persia to gain control of the eastern Mediterranean seaboard as well as Egypt, it required not only powerful military forces but also a strong navy which in the early stages of planning the attack on Egypt it did

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC

established in Egypt for them to inhabit. The Carians and Ionians as well as mercenary groups from many other countries are attested throughout the 26th Dynasty and formed an essential element of the growing Saite military power. Changes to the navy and modifications in naval architecture helped Egypt secure control of its sea coast and achieve an effective Mediterranean naval presence.   egypt of the saite pharaohs On the international front, for the first time in centuries Egypt was able to occupy territory in Syria–Palestine. For a brief period, Egypt was once

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Civil war to prosperity

in Egyptian and Assyrian royal inscriptions. In addition, they are mentioned in Classical sources, and their presence is demonstrated by graffiti such as that at Abu Simbel and Carian graffiti at Wadi el-Shatt el-Regal and Gebel el-Silsila.57 Such evidence indicates that the mercenaries came from mainland Greece, the Aegean islands, Caria, Lydia, Libya, Kush, Phoenicia, Aram, Israel and Judah.58 Ahmose II had at his disposal a potent navy to protect Egyptian trade routes. He seized Cyprus,59 already coveted by the Babylonians who had previously occupied Cilicia

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Abstract only

continued throughout the conflict, and even after. In addition to a couple of bad harvests, Napoleon’s blockades of British trade routes led to a period of economic crisis in 1811 and 1812. Thousands of people claimed poor relief during this period (Briggs 2000 : 165), and there was significant strain on those institutions dedicated to the relief of the poor: on poorhouses, almshouses, and workhouses. After the war, the labour market was flooded with young men who had previously found employment in the army or the navy. As the population of able-bodied poor grew

in An archaeology of lunacy
Foreign relations and internal reforms

Mediterranean, would have had an important strategic role, with navy vessels being able to berth there.72 egypt, a new beginning Naukratis was part of the complex trade network that linked the Mediterranean and connected the two civilisations of Greece and Egypt,73 with Greek ships docking at Naukratis to trade such goods as silver, wine and oil in exchange for grain, linen, papyrus and natron.74 Pottery finds indicate that the trading connections of Naukratis were quite extensive, not only involving the Greek states, Phoenicia, Cyprus and Cyrene but also extending as far as

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC