On 25 September 1911 the battleship Liberté exploded in Toulon harbour. This tragedy is just one of the many disasters that the French fleet suffered at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries and also represents the peak of these calamities, since it is undoubtedly the most deadly suffered by a French Navy ship in peacetime. The aim of this article is to study how the navy managed this disaster and the resulting deaths of service personnel, which were all the more traumatic because the incident happened in France’s main military port and in circumstances that do not match the traditional forms of death at sea.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal

attack on sight. Exclusion zones were established in both World Wars as well as in the Falklands War. During World War II the German navy operated a submarine ‘sink on sight’ policy against any shipping in an operation or exclusion zone, but the Nuremberg Tribunal 7 held that such a policy directed against neutral merchant shipping was illegal, and implied that it was lawful only against

in The contemporary law of armed conflict

Armed Conflict , 2004; US Department of the Army Field Manual, FM27-10, The Law of Land Warfare , US Department of the Navy, NWP-9, Annotated Supplement to Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations , 1997 , US Department of the Air Force, AFP 110-31, International Law: The Conduct of Armed Conflict and Air

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Abstract only

. While there was no attempt by the classical writers to define ‘combatants’, some of them provided definitions of ‘soldiers’. Thus Ayala 4 stated that ‘those only are called soldiers who have had the oath put to them and have taken it and have been incorporated in the ranks. Sailors and oarsmen in the navy are soldiers. Further, not everyone is admissible as a soldier and some persons are not compelled

in The contemporary law of armed conflict

recognised rules of international law applicable . . . to the use of flags in the conduct of naval warfare’, so it would still be lawful to follow the practice of the Royal Navy in World War I and make use of ‘Q ships’, vessels disguised as merchant ships or as belonging to the enemy until the moment of engagement, a practice also indulged in by the German navy. 156 Legitimate ruses in land warfare

in The contemporary law of armed conflict

of Force by States , 1963, 373. During the Iran–Iraq War, when the US and other navies were protecting oil tankers passing through the Gulf, the USS Vincennes destroyed an Iranian civilian aircraft while it was on a recognised flight path, in the mistaken belief that it was a military aircraft about to attack. In 1989 Iran referred the issue to the World Court, but the

in The contemporary law of armed conflict