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Marie Helena Loughlin

Somerset, Villiers rose swiftly from Viscount (1616), to Earl (1617), to Marquis (1618), and finally to Duke of Buckingham (1623). Buckingham’s talents and commitment to James’s service were demonstrated in his reorganization and revitalization of the navy. His relationship with James’s eldest son, Charles, was cemented into a lasting and deep friendship during their joint incognito visit to Spain in 1623, in an unsuccessful attempt to win the Spanish Infanta as Charles’s wife. Under Charles, Buckingham encouraged England’s wars with Spain and France, their disastrous

in Same-Sex Desire in Early Modern England, 1550–1735
Contemporary texts, propaganda, and life writing

medal citation appeared alongside others and no special attention was drawn to it. However, Drummond’s case was special, so much so that when the ship eventually reached Norfolk Virginia she was feted in the American press and locals quickly raised £5oo to purchase the Victoria Drummond mobile canteen for use in London during the ongoing blitz. Drummond was special because she was the only female engineer in the merchant navy, and one of a small number of women serving as crew on British merchant ships during wartime. This was an aspect of the Battle of the Atlantic

in Gender and warfare in the twentieth century
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Edmund Waller, Andrew Marvell, and the advice-to-a-painter poem

Dutch his twinging anguish know, / And feel what valor whet with pain can do’ (SA, 97–98). As this example suggests, Marvell’s poem parodies the vast limbs and great heart of Waller’s York by selecting absurd or grotesque parts as metonymic symbols. The poem’s depictions of Clarendon and Sir Robert Paston, for example, employ the same hyperbolic scale used by Waller, but turn it to satiric purposes: First, let our navy scour through silver froth, The ocean’s burden and the kingdom’s both, Whose very bulk may represent its birth From Hyde and Paston, burdens of the

in Historical literatures
Andrew McRae and John West

called a council of officers,3 and advised with  other persons of interest in the nation how this great burden of governing England, Scotland and Ireland, with the armies therein, and navy at sea, should be  borne, and by whom. Who, after several days seeking of God, and advising therein, it was resolved that a council of godly, able and discreet persons should  be  named, consisting of 21,4 and that his excellency should be chosen Lord Protector of the three nations. In pursuance hereof several persons of eminency and worth are already made choice of to be the said

in Literature of the Stuart successions

3 Popular orphan adventure narratives T HE CONSIDERATION of the unassimilable figure of Heathcliff does raise another issue: what happens to the orphan children of the poor who are not ultimately recouped into families? This marginalised figure without family ties dominates juvenile literature, specifically popular orphan adventure narratives – the legacy of which is to be found in The Pirates of Penzance written in 1879. In this literature, the orphan becomes the sailor who, in finding employment on the seas in either the merchant navy or marines, does the

in Orphan texts
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A final story

’, though in fact the Hospital ‘never employed such a man’ (p. vii). Otis Gardiner sells the older children he collects to mill owners or to the navy. If the babies don’t die quickly, he murders Coram Boy: a final story 163 them. He forces his simple-minded son, Meshak, to help him to bury the bodies in woods and ditches and by deserted hedgerows. Meshak is haunted by the dead babies. He sees their faces in trees and brambles, or staring up at him from the depths of a pond where his father made him hide some of the babies. One autumn night he is terrified by the sight of

in Playing for time
Marvell’s public and private writings, 1649– 65

, emphasising the English claims to sovereignty over the seas that the Rump had continued to insist upon. Marvell’s sneering reference to Hugo Grotius’s notion, that order should be maintained through respect of rights, defends English sovereignty against the Dutch.38 And the Dutch ‘burgomaster’, Maarten van Tromp, whose failure to acknowledge Captain Robert Blake off the Dover coast became one of the incendiary actions that triggered the war, gets cast off in shame as Marvell’s poem celebrates the navy’s (and by association, the Rump’s) resounding success. Yet, for all these

in From Republic to Restoration
Ralegh and the call to arms

’s cultural capital at this time may be sufficiently signalled with reference to the printer’s prefatory matter to the collection: here, the reader is alerted to the fact that ‘Raleighs very Name is Proclamation MUP_Armitage_Ralegh.indd 263 07/10/2013 14:09 264 Andrew Hiscock Essayes contained a number of prose pieces which had been completed during the later, Jacobean period of his life, such as ‘Excellent Observations and Notes, concerning the Royall Navy and Sea-service’, and ‘Apologie for his voyage to Guiana’, relating to the final, doomed expedition of 1617

in Literary and visual Ralegh

was censored, Joachim Oudaen suggested that Willem the Stadholder accepted war with England purely for reasons of his own gain, reflecting the split between Republicans and Orangists within the Dutch polity.11 In 1667, during the Second Anglo-Dutch War, the outcome of which gave de la Court his confidence, many English Republicans in the English navy took a similar viewpoint about princes, driven especially by Charles II’s failure to pay them, defected, and supplied the expert naval advice that enabled the Dutch to mount successfully the Chatham raid. Thomas Dolman

in Texts and readers in the Age of Marvell
The material production of American literature in nineteenth-century Britain

plot of The Pilot are also transatlantic. In his preface to the 1849 edition issued by American publisher George Palmer Putnam, Cooper claimed that he was inspired to write the novel after discussing Scott’s The Pirate (1822) and concluding that he might ‘present truer pictures of the ocean’ (Cooper, 1991 : 5). Set in 1780 on the north-east coast of England and based on the exploits of Revolutionary War hero John Paul Jones, The Pilot narrates an attempt by the American navy to kidnap important British persons

in Interventions