This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.
armies, and even the Royal Navy was equal to only the next two navies
Sources of anti-Americanism
– right now all the other navies in the world combined could not dent
American maritime supremacy’.10 Kennedy actually underestimates the
extent of American military might. American defence spending is now
larger than the rest of the world’s military spending, combined.
Europe collectively cannot come close to duplicating US military
power. Although the non-US members of NATO have 1.25 million men
be harmed by an Israeli–Syrian peace agreement. Such an accord could be expected to enhance Syrian, hence also Kurdish, perhaps even Greek freedom of maneuver for anti-Turkish démarches. It is noteworthy that Turkey made public its agreements with Israel in April 1996, after publication of the existence of a Syrian–Greek military agreement. The Athens–Damascus accords permit Greek airforce planes to undertake training flights over Syrian air space and receive ground services at Syrian airfields, while likewise granting the Greek navy docking and anchorage
beginning with a brief history of the Royal Navy and its customs. The list
of unimportant things which would be discussed was ‘innocuous’ material
such as the organisation of the Admiralty, British Fleets and their bases,
especially Singapore, Fleet tactics off the West Coast of Korea, Flotilla
organisation and communications, battle strategy of Carrier forces etc.
Lankford pleaded ignorance, but the plea was not accepted. A day or two
later, Lee extended the list of requirements to Naval operational planning,
inter-service operational planning and the
-corruption interventions in Georgia’.
Neocleous, ‘Security, liberty, and the myth of balance’.
Jha and Pushpendra, ‘Governing caste and managing conflict’.
Kabamba, ‘Heart of darkness’.
Peace via social justice and/or security
49 Simoes, ‘Bridge installed to give navy base in Bahrain easy access to
50 Sengupta, ‘Pride and politics’.
Agnew, J., ‘Killing for a cause? Geographies of war and peace’, Annals of the
Association of American Geographers, 99:5 (2009), 1054–89.
Avruch, K. and C. Mitchell (eds), Conflict Resolution and Human Needs:
, the ten-
day NATO naval exercise begun on the 4th, ended without major incident. On the
14th, the US Navy’s AEGIS-class guided missile cruiser USS Vella Gulf, a type of ship
equipped with AN/SPY 1 radar that can track long-distance targets, left the Black Sea in
compliance with the Montreux Convention, which limits to 21 days the naval presence
of countries not bordering it.68 After the departure of Vella Gulf, other NATO ships
remained in the Black Sea and were there on the day of the downing of MH17; notably,
the Italian flagship frigate ITS Aviere and a
a Turkish attack, especially in respect of the islands off the Turkish mainland, and there are no early warning systems registering Turkish incursions into Greek air space. 13
The 1974 war in Cyprus encouraged Greece to rectify at least some of its military shortcomings. It established offensive units independent of NATO and expanded its navy and airforce, thus improving its ability to respond to Turkish threats and incursions. But, with 7 per cent of the national budget now devoted to defense needs, the burden on the Greek economy is heavy
The crises of the inter-war years
and the state’s long-standing enemy on its northern frontier was dismantled. Where there had once been an empire with 51 million subjects, there was now Yugoslavia and an Austrian state of 6 million
subjects, a circumscribed army and a three-boat navy.
Prudence would have directed post-war Italian governments to prioritise exploiting these favourable circumstances to combat the state’s economic weakness. But like their pre-war predecessors, they struggled to
avoid the temptation of using foreign policy as an instrument
the UNODC put it, “Drug money is not only
buying real estate and flashy cars: it is buying power.”d By 2008, multiple
high-ranking Guinea-Bissau government and military officials were implicated
in cocaine trafficking. These included the country’s minister of interior, the
head of Judicial Police, the former head of the army, and the air force chief
of staff. In early 2010 the US government designated former commander of
the navy, Rear Admiral Bubo Na Tchuto, a “drug kingpin” at the center of
By 2010 increased international awareness and interdiction
—interventionism. Beijing maintains that military intervention is only legitimate if
both the UNSC and host state consent, and has frequently argued that
many internal African crises fall outside the United Nations’ mandate.48
Nonetheless, since 2000 China has committed police and military personnel to some of Africa’s most challenging conflicts, from Darfur
to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). With some 2,630
personnel serving in seven peacekeeping missions in Africa in 2016,
China is the largest contributor among the permanent five members.49
Since 2009 the Chinese navy has