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in a typical Shakespearean wordplay – on the French mords = bite, and its homonym, ‘byght’ (modern: bight). A bight is an indentation in a coastline a body of water cupped between two headlands ( OED ), of which there are several in Europe, including the Egmont Bight in Dorset and the Helgoland Bight where the British claimed a famous victory over the German navy on 28

in Reading Shakespeare’s mind
Marvell’s public and private writings, 1649– 65

, emphasising the English claims to sovereignty over the seas that the Rump had continued to insist upon. Marvell’s sneering reference to Hugo Grotius’s notion, that order should be maintained through respect of rights, defends English sovereignty against the Dutch.38 And the Dutch ‘burgomaster’, Maarten van Tromp, whose failure to acknowledge Captain Robert Blake off the Dover coast became one of the incendiary actions that triggered the war, gets cast off in shame as Marvell’s poem celebrates the navy’s (and by association, the Rump’s) resounding success. Yet, for all these

in From Republic to Restoration
Ralegh and the call to arms

’s cultural capital at this time may be sufficiently signalled with reference to the printer’s prefatory matter to the collection: here, the reader is alerted to the fact that ‘Raleighs very Name is Proclamation MUP_Armitage_Ralegh.indd 263 07/10/2013 14:09 264 Andrew Hiscock Essayes contained a number of prose pieces which had been completed during the later, Jacobean period of his life, such as ‘Excellent Observations and Notes, concerning the Royall Navy and Sea-service’, and ‘Apologie for his voyage to Guiana’, relating to the final, doomed expedition of 1617

in Literary and visual Ralegh

defending the virtue and legitimacy of the mathematical arts, Dee gradually paves the way for presenting a sustained argument for the establishment of a ‘Pety-Navy-Royall’: a flexible tool that would provide, in addition to coastal and economic protection, ‘the onely Maister Key, wherewith to open all Locks, that kepe out, or hinder, this Incomparable Brytish Impire’ (sig. A4 v ). Written to promote imperial aspirations to sympathetic listeners, the treatise continually looks to the author’s future plans: when writing of ‘THE BRYTISH QUEENE ELIZABETH, HER TABLES

in Edmund Spenser and the romance of space
Musical comedy

pans up past the ship’s metallic weaponry to the New York skyline, leaving the film as a paean to the navy and the city rather than emotional self-realisation of individuals or fulfilment in love. Marriage is mentioned as a wistful hope lying in the future, and On the Town ends, like Love’s Labour’s Lost , as undoubtedly a romantic comedy but with inconclusive courtship and more than a touch of

in Shakespeare’s cinema of love
Abstract only
Size matters

with the world of trinkets, trifles, and spices acquired through England’s growing trade with the east. Elizabeth was beginning to enjoy, through her navy and her merchants, the experience of expansion that her votaress enjoys in bodily terms. To the east, John Newbery and Ralph Fitch made an overland journey to India in 1583, reaching Goa and the court of the Mogul emperor, Akbar

in Goddesses and Queens
Rochester, Mennes, Pepys, Urquhart and the sense of dis-ordure

medieval syntax with early modern lexis is indicative of a fluency with Chaucerian style and, as such, is symptomatic of the true enthusiast: Raylor informs us, ‘Mennes has been regarded as instrumental in keeping Chaucer’s reputation alive in the seventeenth century . . . In his later years, given the opportunity, Mennes would while away whole afternoons entertaining his colleagues at the Navy Office by

in Between two stools

23 Chapter 1 1660: restoration and revolution1 Blair Worden O n the face of it the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 is not hard to explain. An unforeseen and mostly unwanted civil war had had unforeseen and mostly unwanted consequences. The fracturing of the parliamentarian cause by the regicide; the inability of the regimes of the 1650s to root themselves in public feeling or establish coherent principles of government; their dependence on military rule and on the massive taxation that sustained the army and navy; the powers and intrusiveness of a swollen

in From Republic to Restoration
Allegories of the Armada

vndertake them, they are in déede but as chastizements appointed by God for the one side or the other.”14 Nor was this doctrine of providence invoked only by members of the clergy interpreting a war for the reading or sermon-going public: long before his navy sighted the Armada, Admiral Howard was acknowledging God’s sovereignty, invoking his name, seeking his assistance, as will witness almost any page of the correspondence he directed to Walsingham.15 Clergymen were not the only Elizabethans who subscribed to popular providentialism. Nor were the English alone in this

in Spenserian allegory and Elizabethan biblical exegesis

crown’s authority, frustrated by inadequate revenues and the failure of numerous proposals for new taxes, the king had dissolved parliament and determined to rule without it. His Attorney General William Noy scoured the statute books for sources of money. One such source was the revival of an Elizabethan tax on coastal towns for the support of the navy – such towns were targets of

in Spectacular Performances