because the city of Genoa was in some measure a Roman port. For when the Romans
wished to send a navy into Africa or Spain they assembled at the port of Genoa.
For this reason the same Titus Livy, in his second part
where he discusses the Second Punic War between the Romans and the
Carthaginians, says this: in the 534th year from the founding of the
City , Publius Cornelius Scipio was at Marseilles with his ships
whole world? When I do it in a small boat I am called a thief, but when you do
the same thing with a great navy, you are called emperor. My poverty makes me a
thief, but your arrogance and insatiable greed do the same’. This was as
if to say: ‘You and I are both similar and dissimilar. We are similar in
that I am a thief and you are a thief, but we are dissimilar in that I am a
petty thief and you are a great one: I prey on the sea and you, on the entire
able to recruit men from the city or the Riviera to their galleys did not
spare costs or expenses. Thus it is reported that there were 45,000 fighting
men in this magnificent navy. But also, so many men remained in the city and
along the Riviera that if it were necessary they could have nobly manned up to
forty more galleys, with sufficient guards left behind in the city and along
And indeed, because the Genoese understood that the
– and by 1377 the court of Fernando I ( r . 1367–83)
was awash with faction and intrigue. As ‘patriotic’
elements in Portuguese political society cast around for allies against
the Castilian threat, England (and Gaunt especially) was glad to make an
agreement which promised access to the second-best navy in Europe, and
offered support in his contest for the Castilian throne  .
Thus by the mid-1370s
force and embarked with his army,
having made an alliance with João, king of Portugal (r.
1385–1433). This illegitimate son of King Pedro (r.
1357–67) succeeded his legitimate half-brother Fernando (r.
1367–83), but faced both internal and Castilian challenges. He
was desperate for allies, hence his overtures to England. For England,
the support of the Portuguese navy was worth having, and Portugal
out; it would
be much better to take your time and send first for the whole of the
navy; for we have less than a hundred barges; how can we go, seeing
that around here there are many huge rocks in the water, and the
seabed is dangerous? Take my advice: it would be much better to send
the earl of Salisbury across, who can hold the field against the
duke and make sufficient war