Chuchill, 26 January 1942; TNA, AIR
19/217: Sinclair to Churchill, 23 October 1942.
6 Webster and Frankland, The Strategic Air Offensive, pp. 135–6, 143–4.
7 E. J. Grove (ed.), The Defeat of Enemy Shipping, 1939–45: Vol. 1B (Plans
and Tables) (Aldershot: Navy Records Society, 1957), Plan 14; Roskill, War
at Sea, p. 218.
8 S. Hoffman, Decline or Renewal? France since the 1930s (New York: Viking
Press, 1974), pp. 3–4; R. Paxton, Vichy France: Old Guard and New Order,
1940–1944 (New York: Alfred K. Knopf, 1972), pp. 231, 262–83.
9 TNA, FO 371/28541: Mayor of Dieppe to
, were wary of Russian expansionism. Disraeli, his hands
tied, could not be seen to offer support to the Ottomans, and
declared a state of contingent neutrality. He was reduced to hoping
that a show of Royal Navy strength in the Turkish Straits would be
his strongest card against the Russians. Popular Russophobia took
the heat out of Gladstone’s coruscating calls for intervention
European powers, representing the three branches of Christianity – Orthodox Russia, Catholic France, and Protestant England – came together at the Battle of Navarino (November 1827) to destroy the Ottoman navy and begin the process of securing Greek independence. 100 Such a united Christian front, Freeman believed, is needed once again to challenge the pretensions of the Ottoman Empire. But, unfortunately, the men who succeeded Canning ‘could not understand his spirit or walk in his steps. Such was the wise and generous policy of England under a great minister; such was
engraving, thus the fine arts cannot exist among them … They have scarcely any notion of medicine or surgery; and they do not allow of anatomy. As to science, the telescope, the microscope, the electric battery, are unknown, except as playthings. The compass is not universally employed in the navy, nor are its common purposes fully understood. Navigation, astronomy, geography, chemistry, are either not known, or practised only on antiquated and exploded principles. 163
Newman takes up two other fields of intellectual activity which he believed were forbidden to Muslims
shipping to man their navies during war’, whereas Britain ‘could draw on a continuous reserve of skilled maritime labor in most wars long after more absolutist states had exhausted their supplies’. 27 The character of the seafaring experience was rooted as much in the terrestrial communities that launched mariners as in their working social relations, their shipboard communities. 28
The ocean as an ecological space is getting its due. This is most evident in the work of Jeffrey Bolster. He focuses on the large marine ecosystem between Cape Cod and
joined the High Court at Lahore in 1943. In 1945, he served on the
commission appointed to investigate the Royal Indian Navy mutiny,
alongside Major-General Thomas ‘Pete’ Rees, who would later
command the ill-fated Punjab Boundary Force. 12 In 1947, Rees congratulated
Mahajan on his appointment to the Punjab boundary commission. 13 Mahajan, like so
many others, did not anticipate the seriousness of post
Joseph H. Bateson, CBE b. Kendal 5 March 1865; Friends School,
Kendal, Queen’s College Taunton and Richmond College; chaplain Burma Field Force 1886;
Secretary, Royal Army Temperance Association in India for twenty years; Secretary, Army and
Navy Board 1909; CBE 1918; d. 5 October 1935.
SOAS/WMMS/Correspondence/FBN1/Winston–Brown, 8 March
Rev. John Walton succeeded Jenkins; b. Leeds 1823; grandfather,
father and father-in-law were Wesleyan preachers
at Leyton Boys’ High School and St Catherine’s College Cambridge; Royal
Navy during war; trained at Wesley House, Cambridge and served in Tahan (1952–66);
fluent Burmese Lushai speaker with a fine sense of humour, Cowell trained Lushai ministers
and drafted the Constitution for Church of Upper Burma. He married Margaret Bastin
(1926–2010), a Women’s Work missionary and daughter of Methodist missionaries in
Hong Kong; she was educated at Trinity Hall School and Middlesex hospital (midwifery and
nursing). A fluent