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Brian Friel’s play Translations (1980) reveals, however, the creation of these maps in the early part of the nineteenth century saw the introduction of many misleading place names. Surveying parties were sent out under the leadership of officers in the Royal Engineers, to take stock of the empire’s Hibernian real estate. But many of the names they came up with were either inept attempts to translate the Irish names’ meanings or transliterations of their sound into English orthography – as understood by cartographers who generally knew no Gaelic. The overall effect was

in Unfolding Irish landscapes
Exploring the session space

and bodhrán – which appear strange to them. I play the Irish tenor banjo, a four-stringed, fretted instrument tuned like the violin and played with a plectrum. Hardly the most traditional of instruments in an Irish context, the banjo probably developed from instruments of African origin. The tuning, frets, and method of playing with a plectrum are all examples of cultural development over the course of about three centuries in both America and Ireland. In the nineteenth century, the popularity of the banjo grew through minstrel shows on both sides of the Atlantic. I

in Spacing Ireland
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Ireland’s ‘ABC of earth wonders’

associated with appropriating identity in Eurocentric colonial projects. This part of European history dates back to the so-called ‘Age of Discovery’ in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, when empires, although couched in rhetoric of exploration and discovery, adopted maps as agents of power and control. In Ireland, the Ordnance Survey, which was conducted by the British military in the mid-nineteenth century from 1824 to 1846, exemplifies the tensions surrounding cartographic projects in colonised zones.The Ordnance Survey mapping project attempted to, in part

in Unfolding Irish landscapes
The spa in Celtic Tiger Ireland

drawn from Britain and France that looked at towns like Bath and Vichy (Gesler, 2003; Mackaman, 1998; Porter, 1990). Ireland too has a spa history between 1700 and the late nineteenth century based on towns such as Lisdoonvarna, Lucan, Mallow and Swanlinbar (Foley, 2010; Kelly, 2009). Several of these towns subsequently developed new identities as hydropathic centres where the earlier natural curative mineral springs were reinvented via more commercial forms of water-based therapies and treatments (Foley, 2010; O’Leary, 2000). In many ways, a mix of these two

in Spacing Ireland
The restructuring of work in Britain

possibility for the market to be depicted as an external sphere within which individuals privately engage in business. The state is thus legitimated as an actor that stands apart from the market and intervenes in order to ‘harness’ private initiative to the ‘pull’ of the international market. As Polanyi has it: ‘economic liberals must and will unhesitatingly call for the intervention of the state in order to establish it (the market system), and once established, to maintain it’ (1957: 149). This nineteenth century liberal construction of the market as simultaneously

in Globalisation contested
Re-inventing open space in Greece and Switzerland

per cent of the production is offered to the ‘municipal social grocery’1 as a response to the impacts of the debt crisis on poverty and income (Anthopoulou et al., 2015; 2018). Thus, both types of initiatives play a substantial role in urban poverty and food insecurity reduction. Switzerland: urban densification and open green space management In comparison to Greece, urban gardening in Switzerland in the form of allotment/​family gardens has a longer tradition that dates back to the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and contextually coincides with the development

in Urban gardening and the struggle for social and spatial justice