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during the first year until she is professed. And then, when chapter is finished, she who shall be her mistress shall say to the prioress: ‘There is a novice to be examined.’ And then the prioress shall ask for her to be brought in. And her mistress shall bring her in. And when she comes where the convent receive their penance, then she shall

in Monasticism in late medieval England, c. 1300–1535

did not believe she was.6 Additional factors complicated the debate. As mistress of the novices, Ursula Hewick wrote in October 1624 to inform the archbishop that Cotton had told her she liked neither the abbess nor the convent, and that she prayed God not to be accepted. Although there is no record of any initial reluctance, she had come to conceive a strong dislike for the religious life, which Hewick feared would be the cause of much trouble if her profession went ahead as planned, on 10 November 1624.7 The novice was therefore put on probation, but by February

in English Benedictine nuns in exile in the seventeenth century

habits and a properly equipped cell for each new nun. This cost 500 florins (equivalent to 625 livres tournois) per novice. In 1600, Brussels received five novices, at a cost of 2,500 florins for their clothes and the furnishing of their cells; in 1603, 2,000 florins were dedicated to the provision of four new novices, in 1605, 1,500 florins for three new novices and in 1608, 2,000 florins for another four novices.6 Of course, new nuns meant new dowries for the communities, but their entry into religion had an initial cost; although these were only occasional 79 MUP

in English Benedictine nuns in exile in the seventeenth century

constitutions of Paris highlighted the crucial importance of ‘the right education of Novices’, upon which ‘all good order & discipline & true Religion doe depend’.25 The novice mistress supervised them and acted as an elder sister who taught her younger siblings how to behave in the family and how to serve it well. The abbess and her council therefore chose her amongst the more experienced and achieved professed Sisters: she was to be able ‘to gain Soules by words, but more by example’. Under her care, novices learnt to sing and to say the divine office, to perform all

in English Benedictine nuns in exile in the seventeenth century

powerful posts: the superior and the novice mistress. Superiors were ‘good shepherds’, the leaders of religious communities who ensured that vows were fulfilled and the rules were observed.75 They were confirmed by a male ecclesiastical superior after their election by secret ballot, but in diocesan institutes, they could also be appointed by the local bishop and, in very special circumstances, selected by postulation.76 They directed the community’s dayto-day affairs and oversaw the spiritual development of the community, and The recruitment of women religious 97

in Creating a Scottish Church
Abstract only

-Indian cookbooks and household management guides had been written in the early nineteenth century, but with the establishment of a sizeable female population by the last quarter of the century such texts were published in greater number to assist the novice Anglo-Indian housekeeper address the peculiar problems of household management in India. The genre apparently remained popular through to the end of

in Married to the empire

’.24 Cecelie Price was said to mortify her body ‘by the rigour of austeritys, fasting, chain bracelets, hair cloath and the like’.25 Mary Mounson, mistress of novices at Ghent, ‘dyed alive, being nothing but skin and bone’; she suffered ‘strong agonys’ through the use of ‘hair Cloaths, braceletts, Iron Chains and sharp disciplins’. Catherine Wigmore also used those instruments of penance regularly.26 Mary Ignatia Coningsby was more inventive, and although she frequently wore iron chains and bracelets, ‘she had the hidden art to mortify her poor old body 3 or 4 ways

in English Benedictine nuns in exile in the seventeenth century

and towardly’, wrote Gregory Martin of Santo Spirito in Rome towards 1580.3 In this and other hospitals, boys were minded by mistresses for a year or two and then handed over to masters. In 1657, Santo Spirito provided a combined schoolroom and dormitory equipped with fifteen beds for older boys, together with three or four rooms for younger ones still under female supervision. Such ‘seminaries’ taught reading, writing, grammar, arithmetic, Christian doctrine and good behaviour; a few children might pick up some Latin; a few masters taught music and looked out for

in Tolerance, Regulation and Rescue

temptation, or the diabolic conflicts which were frequent with him, he called upon her out loud, sweetly saying, ‘My lady and mistress, do not abandon me, but succour your servant in this necessity and affliction.’ On one occasion Pier was asked by the priest of San Giorgio, which is a mile and a half outside Siena, if he would consent to go and dine. The priest did this out of the desire

in Saints and cities in medieval Italy
Tasteful gardening and growing attachment

knowledge of the language of flowers, and activities such as painting. There follows an examination of the various sections of the colonial garden and the practices therein, which identifies the complexity of values the garden had for the mistress of the house. It is fitting that we enter at the front garden, as would any caller, as by so doing we can consider the face the genteel household presented to the world. From there we take a guided tour round the flower garden, including consideration of other decorative features

in Genteel women