words, having observed shifts in the epistemology of body-knowledge
in China, this chapter will explore whether such shifts also generated a change
in the lived experience (or phenomenology) of the body.
Blood in the canonical medical literature
Literate physicians in imperial China found it natural to ground their understandings of the body in canonical works such as the Yellow Emperor’s Inner
Canon (黃帝內經). This compilation of Han Dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE) texts
(and a few earlier and later) explains the body, in health and disease, as part
of the cosmological order
The dead body, the individual and the limits of medicine
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Shildrick, M. (2014) Visceral phenomenology: organ transplantation, identity and
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Medicine. New York, SUNY Press.
Thomas, S., Burke, S. and Barry, S. (2014) The Irish health-care system and austerity: sharing the pain. The Lancet, 383: 1545–1546.
Wehling, P. (2011) Biology, citizenship and the government of biomedine. IN:
Brockling, U., Gasmann, S. and Lemke, T. (eds) Governmentality: Current Issues,
Future Challenges. New York, Routledge: pp. 225–246.
Yeates, N. (1999
unconsidered background of the ready-to-hand. See Martin Heidegger,
“The thing,” in Poetry, Language, Thought, trans. Albert Hofstadter (New York:
Harper and Row, 1971); Graham Harman, “Technology, objects and things in
Heidegger,” Cambridge Journal of Economics 34 (2010): 17–25; Jane Bennett and
William Connolley, “The crumpled handkerchief,” in Time and History in Deleuze
and Serres, ed. Bernd Herzogenrath (New York: Continuum, 2012); Ian Bogost,
Alien Phenomenology; or, What It’s Like to Be a Thing (Minneapolis: University of
Minnesota Press, 2012).
7 The other chapters
Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1962).
30 For an erudite study that places Kuhn’s contribution to the human sciences in
the context of the postwar “Harvard complex,” see Joel Isaac, Working Knowledge:
Making the Human Sciences from Parsons to Kuhn (Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press, 2012).
31 Karl Popper, The Logic of Scientific Discovery (London: Hutchinson, 1968
); Edmund Husserl, The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental
Phenomenology, trans. David Carr (Evanston, IL: North western
Writing the history of the ‘International’ Health Service
Julian M. Simpson
research’, The Oral History Review, 39:1 (2012).
85 Keulen & Kroeze, ‘Back to business’, p. 16.
86 Perks, ‘Roots of oral history’, p. 220.
87 T. Kushner, ‘Great Britons: Immigration, history and memory’, in K. Burrell
& P. Panayi (eds), Histories and Memories: Migrants and Their History in
Britain (London, New York: Tauris Academic Studies, 2006), p. 22.
88 C. Brown, ‘Reflections on oral history and migrant communities in
Britain’, Oral History, 34:1 (2006), p. 69.
89 Brown, ‘Reflections on oral history’, p. 72.
90 R. K. Kirby, ‘Phenomenology and the
to do this, Kolvin separated childhood psychotics into groups
relating to age of onset and then divided up the
‘phenomenology’ of the condition according to these
different groups. What was significant in the planning of this
exercise was the implementation of ‘rigorous criteria’
to ensure that the children could be compared with one another
Jürgen Habermas. 144
The term ‘intersubjectivity’ can be
traced back to the French philosopher Edmund Husserl’s works
in phenomenology. Husserl had used it to describe the way that
beliefs and meanings are formed through both empathy and a shared
sense of egocentric perception. 145 Maurice Merleau-Ponty had discussed
‘intersubjectivity’ in 1945 in relation to early