by the phenomenologist Alfred Schütz. His view erects
non-biological foundations for human existence and, thereby, challenges
the Burtonian biological account. It provides us also with conceptual
tools which can be employed to give the problem-solving workshop a
In order to understand the philosophical context of
phenomenology a short study of its general features is
Ian McEwan’s The Children Act and the limits of the legal practices in Menke’s ‘Law and violence’
-giving, necessary, and even a source of happiness.
A concomitant of Menke’s assumption that human beings are
at root asocial is the absence from his account of a concept of enabling shared practices. For post-Heideggerian phenomenology, or for
a Wittgensteinian approach to culture, we share a world because we
share practices, and our identity would not be sustainable without this
collective project of producing worlds. We can’t separate out some core
of human identity from the social activities that then, in some irrevocable way, take it away from itself. Or, to make the point
[Studienausgabe, 1st edn, 1934], ed.
Matthias Jestaedt (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008), 19).
27 That is Hegel’s description of “unintentional” (or “ingenuous”: unbefangen)
wrong; see G. W. F. Hegel, Elements of the Philosophy of Right, trans. H. B.
Nisbet (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), §§ 84–86.
28 For the retributive justice, “there is as yet no performance of an act” (G. W.
F. Hegel, Phenomenology of Mind, trans. J. B. Baillie (London: MacMillan,
29 Giorgio Agamben has described this structure of the relation between
This book is a critical study of John Burton's work, which outlines an alternative framework for the study of international conflict, and re-examines conflict resolution. It argues that culture has a constitutive role in international conflict and conflict resolution. The book provides an overview of the mediation literature in order to locate problem-solving workshop conflict resolution within the context of peaceful third-party involvement. It analyses human needs thinking and examines the similarities between it and Burton's thinking. The book also examines the logic of Burton's argument by means of metaphor analysis, by analysing the metaphors which can be found in his human needs theory. It studies further Burton's views of action and rationality, and moves into phenomenology and social constructionism. The book takes as its starting-point a totalist theory of international conflict resolution, namely Burton's sociobiologically-oriented conflict theory, and demonstrates the logic of argument and the denial of culture underlying his problem-solving theory. It explains the dimensions of the social world in order to lay a foundation for the study of conflict and conflict resolution from the social constructionist perspective. The book presents a phenomenological understanding of conflict and problem-solving conflict resolution. Finally, it argues that problem-solving workshop conflict resolution can be best understood as an attempt to find a shared reality between the parties in conflict.
J. Burton, Resolving Deep-rooted Conflict: A
Handbook (London and New York, University Press of America,
1987), p. 27.
This section is based on an application of H.
Dreyfus and S. Dreyfus, ‘Towards a Phenomenology of Ethical
Expertise’, Human Studies , 14: 4 (1991), 229-50. Only
The problématique of culture in international conflict analysis
resolution in general, and problem-solving conflict resolution in
particular. In other words, it aims at providing an alternative language
for the study of conflict resolution. Alfred Schutz’s
phenomenology and social constructionist theories of human
‘being’ are employed in order both to criticise
Burton’s views of human nature and to establish a conceptual
framework which does not arise from human needs
Surveillance and transgender bodies in a post-9/ 11 era of neoliberalism
hypervisible – to state institutions? For whom is visibility an
available political strategy, and at what cost?’ (Beauchamp 2013 : 52). And to this I would add, for whom is
invisibility a political strategy? Sara Ahmed’s ( 2006 ) brilliant theorisation of racialised space,
mobility, and movement comes to mind here as well. Building upon Ahmed’s ( 2006 : 139) argument that ‘[a]
phenomenology of “being stopped” might take us in a
facilitator is crucial to
bridge these two models: he or she, as a purified mind, transfers the
parties from the first, cost-benefit, to the second, discursive,
The next chapter of the book moves into phenomenology.
The aim is through sociological phenomenology to emphasise discursive
and hermeneutical elements of problem-solving workshop conflict
resolution. By employing a
To understand practice as ordinary experience, according to Bourdieu (  1992 , 25) we have to step away from the artificial divide between subjective and objective that dominates the social sciences. On the one hand, he found that phenomenological knowledge, which seeks to grasp the meaning of experiences by reference to that experience only, failed to address doxic life – in other words, the common sense beliefs of everyday life. For Bourdieu (  1992 , 135–6), phenomenology reduces social reality to an ‘aggregation of the
"On the political passions in Europe and America and their implications for Transatlantic History"
Charles S. Maier
of psychopathological fringe, which found its recurring phenomenology in beliefs in conspiracy theories. The ideological passions that roiled Europe could only surface as pathologies in the United States.
Earlier theories focused less on the specific resistance to political extremism than the conditions that were conducive to democracy. As Frederick Jackson Turner had argued (borrowing from Achille Loria, the Italian advocate of cooperatives), access to free land also made a difference. By making it possible for rural settlers to become