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Refugees in the Austrian part of the Habsburg Empire during the First World War

from border regions. In a programme devised by the Ministry of War and implemented by the army in Cisleithanian border regions, Ruthenians, Poles and Jews in Galicia and Bukovina, as well as the Serb-Croatian population of Bosnia and (after 1915) the Italianspeaking population of South Tyrol and Trentino, were evacuated and deported into other parts of the monarchy.1 This chapter introduces refugee/evacuee politics in Austria-Hungary, in particular Cisleithania, and then explores the approach of the Habsburg administration towards refugees. (For the sake of

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the population of the borderlands in the Baltic States, Poland, Ukraine, the Caucasus, Central Asia and the Far East. Short-lived regimes faced an almost impossible task to address the ongoing refugee crisis, which was exacerbated by political instability and uncertainty. The end of the Ottoman Empire and the creation of the Turkish Republic did not signal an end to demographic and social upheaval in the Balkans and in Anatolia.8 There were, as the American Red Cross official Homer Folks lamented in 1920, ‘refugees all over Europe’, adding that ‘for five years it

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action somehow came to violate club rules’. 9 John Baylis argues that the US–UK ‘partnership became so close, intimate and informal in such a wide spectrum of political, economic and especially military fields that terms like “exceptional”, “unique”, or “different from the ordinary” can be applied’. The relationship was exceptional ‘because of the degree of intimacy and informality which was developed

in A ‘special relationship’?

displacement during the 1920s.1 This chapter focuses on the circumstances of displacement, the reception and settlement of refugees, and the state’s attempts to address the political, economic and social shock of accepting thousands of refugees from the lost territories. It outlines the centrality of the refugee issue to the development of the modern Bulgarian state, particularly after the Balkan Wars when it occupied a central role both internally and externally.2 The chapter focuses on three main episodes: before 1912, when a quarter of a million refugees had already fled

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the US initiative, even though the visit might have caused a political storm in Britain had it become public knowledge – it would appear that the United States was dictating British economic measures. David Bruce, the US Ambassador to London, regarded Johnson’s initiative as a crude attempt to exploit British difficulties. Finally, Wilson managed to visit Washington, on 15 April. The visit went well, with Johnson giving the

in A ‘special relationship’?

v 5 v Ukrainian assistance to refugees during the First World War1 Liubov Zhvanko and Oleksiy Nestulya Introduction The impact of war has been widely felt in modern Ukraine. The First World War acutely affected ethnic Ukrainians who lived under tsarist and Habsburg rule. This chapter concentrates on the impact of war on displaced Ukrainians before and after the collapse of tsarism in February 1917, whose lives were beset by political uncertainty, economic deprivation and social conflict. Tsarist Russia was a faltering giant with a backward economy and an

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The retreat of the Serbian army and civilians in 1915–16

Fronts. Nevertheless, the Great War, together with the two Balkan Wars in 1912–13, completely transformed the region, reshaping its frontiers and its political and ethnic composition. The consequences continue to reverberate. Nevertheless, many of the most important aspects of the First World War in the Balkans are under-researched. The great retreat of Serbian officials, soldiers and civilians across Albania in 1915–16 is one such episode. Although its outline may be familiar, ‘Golgotha’ remains poorly understood in Serbia. Golgotha (often referred to as the ‘Albanian

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Refugees in Russia, 1914-18

. Volkov put the total refugee population at 7.42 million in 1917, adding that ‘this figure is probably an under-estimate’.5 Most historical demographers concur. Only since the late 1990s have studies of refugees during the First World War appeared in Russia and in other countries on refugees. They include studies of the political, social, economic and cultural consequences of mass population displacement.6 This chapter contributes a discussion of refugees from Russia’s Western Front territories who reached the rear provinces of European Russia, namely Kaluga, Tula

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they had said to each other was not disclosed.’ 7 The verbatim content of some of Wilson and Johnson’s conversations went unnoted, though there are accounts which capture the substance of their talks. Many of the private discussions concerned the British political system. Johnson was ‘intensely interested’, as Bruce had told Wilson, ‘in the problems of political management’. 8 Johnson and Wilson also

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Displaced persons in the Italian linguistic space during the First World War

Displaced persons in the Italian linguistic space v 8 v Beyond the borders: displaced persons in the Italian linguistic space during the First World War Marco Mondini and Francesco Frizzera1 Introduction Italy is still a marginal case in the international history of the First World War despite its peculiarities or perhaps because of its many contradictions.2 The paradoxes enveloping the history of the ‘Italian war’ begin with the political and cultural background to the Kingdom of Italy’s commitment and the oddness of its timing in entering the war. Alone

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