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Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.

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Quarantine and professional identity in mid nineteenth-century Britain
Lisa Rosner

5 Policing boundaries: quarantine and professional identity in mid nineteenth-century Britain Lisa Rosner Introduction As the British imperial presence spread across the world’s inland seas and oceans from the late eighteenth through the nineteenth centuries, so too did deadly diseases like yellow fever, cholera and dysentery. Management of these diseases invariably created disputes between medical men in Royal Navy ships and those at the ports they visited, over whether specific diseases were communicable and, thus, whether there was any purpose to quarantine

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
The changing meaning of Usher syndrome, 1960–1980
Marion Andrea Schmidt

-class professionals and advocates. Moreover, as will become clear, even in the period from the 1960s to the 1980s, both who was identified as having Usher syndrome, and the agency granted to and demanded by deaf-blind people, changed significantly. Today, with a growing pro-tactile movement and their twenty-first-century forms of activism and community-building, experiences, identities, and possibilities have changed again. 6 Taking into account different hearing-sighted, deaf, and deaf-blind perspectives, this chapter follows transformations in what it meant to have Usher

in Eradicating deafness?
Nurses and ECT in Dutch psychiatry, 1940–2010
Geertje Boschma

responsibilities can be observed in the use of ECT, particularly when its application increased during the 1990s, providing nurses with new opportunities for specialised roles. In this chapter I  first explore how nurses took up their work in ECT in the 1940s and 1950s. Then, I examine the way they negotiated their professional identity in the face of dwindling ECT use and fierce anti-psychiatric critique in the 1970s and 1980s. Finally, I discuss how ECT use increased again during the 1990s, affecting nurses’ professional knowledge and authority over ECT. Nurses were able to

in Histories of nursing practice
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From Bell to biodiversity
Marion Andrea Schmidt

-perception. Since cochlear implants (CIs) entered the health care market in the mid-1980s, and especially since the 1990s, when they were approved for infants and toddlers, they have been seen as a kind of (instant) cure for neurosensoral deafness. They have also intensified old divisions. Once more, deaf children are in the middle of a highly emotional debate about their identity, belonging, and future, about whether deafness is something to be fixed or cherished. For CI professionals – neurosurgeons, audiologists, or speech therapists – they spell out a future in which the

in Eradicating deafness?
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Pasts, present, futures
Michael Brown

of such schools over the country?’ Lydgate does not perceive his provincial situation to be an impediment to ‘scientific pursuits’ and ‘the general advance’: far from it. London is a world of ‘intrigues, jealousies, and social truckling’ where ‘very ignorant young gentlemen’ might thrive as long as they had powerful patrons. By contrast, he claims, ‘Any valid professional aims may often find a freer, if not a richer field, in the provinces’. 7 The character of Tertius Lydgate might well serve as a literary motif for those forms of medical identity and performance

in Performing medicine
Expertise, authority and the making of medical dominion
Michael Brown

the professional desire for organisation and legislation; so long as the impelling motives are nothing more dignified than sectional interests, grade prejudices, or interested clamours in a pecuniary sense’.8 What was needed was unity: of purpose, practice, knowledge and identity. Medical practitioners needed to abandon their concern with customary forms of social ‘respectability’ (‘a phrase of bilious mediocrity . . . a mere pandering to dullness’) and embrace their higher calling.9 They needed to abolish the distinctions of rank and practice which divided them

in Performing medicine
DGH psychiatric nurses at Withington General Hospital, 1971-91
Val Harrington

to evaluate its development from their perspective. Nurses were not only the largest staff group, but the nature of both their work and their working hours meant that they were omnipresent. They thus occupy a dual function in the narrative, as both actors and witnesses. The chapter explores how nurses both contributed and adapted to the DGH environment. This process helped forge a new ­professional identity, far removed from that of the traditional asylum nurse and also quite distinct from that of the CPN. Since it is the figure of the CPN who dominates both

in Mental health nursing
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Medical culture and identity in provincial England, c.1760–1850
Author: Michael Brown

This book talks about late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century English medical culture, a study of what it meant to be a doctor and how this changed over time. It presents a brief overview of the social, economic and cultural landscape of late eighteenth-century York. Medical culture and identity in late eighteenth-century York took shape within a social landscape shaped by the values of gentility, polite sociability and civic belonging. The book examines the role of intellectual liberality, demonstrating how public displays of polite and 'ornamental' learning were central to the performance of medico-gentility. It explores the incipient demise of this culture. Through a close reading of a scandal which enveloped the York Lunatic Asylum, it also explores the ways in which medical identities founded upon gentility and politeness were critically undermined by the political and social factionalism. The book looks at medical involvement in the provincial scientific movement, examining how local medical men positioned themselves relative to the so-called 'march of intellect', the cultural and ideological alignment between science and social reform. It continues this analysis in relation to the cholera epidemic of 1832 and other medico-political activities. The book considers how the professional dominion over healthcare was forged by the dual processes of inclusion and exclusion. It discusses the foundation of the Medical School in 1834 against the trial, in the same year, of a local salesman for James Morison's 'Universal Vegetable Medicine'.

South Asian doctors and the reinvention of British general practice (1940s– 1980s)

The NHS is traditionally viewed as a typically British institution; a symbol of national identity. It has however always been dependent on a migrant workforce whose role has until recently received little attention from historians. Migrant Architects draws on 45 oral history interviews (40 with South Asian GPs who worked through this period) and extensive archival research to offer a radical reappraisal of how the National Health Service was made.

This book is the first history of the first generation of South Asian doctors who became GPs in the National Health Service. Their story is key to understanding the post-war history of British general practice and therefore the development of a British healthcare system where GPs play essential roles in controlling access to hospitals and providing care in community settings.

Imperial legacies, professional discrimination and an exodus of British-trained doctors combined to direct a large proportion of migrant doctors towards work as GPs in industrial areas. In some parts of Britain they made up more than half of the GP workforce. This book documents the structural dependency of British general practice on South Asian doctors. It also focuses on the agency of migrant practitioners and their transformative roles in British society and medicine.