This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.
characteristics of individual Roman citizens (Magnette, 2005: 19).
The Middle Ages and Renaissance then highlighted the impact social
groups, in particular professional (Weber, 1998: 44) and religious groups
(Riesenberg, 1992: 88), can have on identity. In light of the extensive role
identity has played in these historical processes of community building, it
is then not at all surprising that European identity has been identified as
an important component of European integration (Risse, 2010: 39–46).
Ongoing debates about the nation state and the EU (Medrano, 2010), the
Russian federation but it also highlighted the challenge to the single politico-cultural identity emanating from the state’s bounded territorial space.46
In the 1990s it had become commonplace in the Russian domestic media to
present Chechen separatism in stereotypical cultural forms – ‘the Russian
professional soldier faces the Chechen bandit’.47 In light of this, interpreting
the containment of the domestic ‘other’ in the first Russo-Chechen campaign
can be read as an attempt to reconfigure a singular politico-cultural identity
of Russia. Indeed, the expurgation of
practice Hinduism.’ In Indochina
the kingdoms of Fu-nan, Champa, Kambujadesa (Kampuchea),Angkor and Laos
were also greatly influenced by Indian culture and civilization.
However, mass migration of people from the Indian subcontinent began
only in the nineteenth century. Narayan, as well as the RHLCID, notes that the
nineteenth and early part of the twentieth centuries witnessed unprecedented
emigration of indentured and other labourers, traders, professionals and
employees of the British government to the British, French, Dutch and
Portuguese colonies in Asia
Raid and Prisoner in the
Caucasus distinctive characteristics of Russian and Caucasian highlander
identity come to the fore. By employing fiction as a means of representing
these characteristics, the short story and the folklore tale provide a way into
interpreting culturally specific forms of identity. Similarly in Serbia – and
more generally in many oral Slavic traditions – professional singers were
viewed as traditional public storytellers, recounting heroic deeds and evoking history. These heroic songs formed the basis of what would later become
epic poems known
evolution of the population of national SMOs’ (2005, 195; italics in original). Based on analysis of US national SMOs he concludes that the ‘rate of founding of federated SMOs with members has not declined during the past several decades as the focus upon the emergence of professional SMOs has suggested’ (2005, 205). In short, populations do not seem to be changing complexion, but when one stumbles across contemporary ‘memberless’ groups they are conveniently interpreted as part of a broader shift. As elaborated in Chapter 5 , survey evidence of the Scottish group system
highly professional; yet in both states the military, ex-military politicians, and the intelligence services nevertheless frequently overshadow the diplomats. The limited influence of professional foreign policy establishments, together with the dominance of the policy process by military and intelligence bureaucrats, may give special weight to the advocates of the use of force over negotiation in achieving ends and to ‘national security’ considerations over other issues, such as economic interests or identity, in the policy process.
demonstrated in Chapter 5 , many do not see themselves in those terms; they do not pursue a representative identity or group self-image. The core question this framework alerts scholars to is not whether groups actually do practice internal democratic enfranchisement of their affiliates – it does not explain why they do (or do not) manifest such practices. Rather, it establishes whether such practices are necessary to democratically legitimate their advocacy – it establishes whether they are able to engage in democratic representation at all
In the age of globalisation and post-9/11 era, we witnessed the rise of new challenges to international security and the discourses of the global ‘war on terror’.
Meanwhile, the notions of modernity such as statehood, sovereignty, national
identity and the foreign policy of states have become increasingly contested in
the study of international relations. In general, the concept of foreign policy
has been by-passed in the main theories of IR.9 In particular, the increasing
meta-theoretical interests in the studies of global politics ‘have only occasionally
perception’ – tools whereby
capitalism ‘transmutes all culture, emotion, identity, into a form open to
Technologies of travel involve far more than the unique collapse of
time and space that modern travel possibilities afford, although they are
also that. They are a mode of being – a way of forming and projecting the
Self and consuming the Other for pleasure, profit, or some combination of
these. As such, tourism has several minimally unifying characteristics.
Tourism presupposes time as organized and regulated and the division of