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Place, space and discourse
Editors: Christine Agius and Dean Keep

Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.

Power, accountability and democracy

Does European integration contribute to, or even accelerate, the erosion of intra-party democracy? This book is about improving our understanding of political parties as democratic organisations in the context of multi-level governance. It analyses the impact of European Union (EU) membership on power dynamics, focusing on the British Labour Party, the French Socialist Party (PS), and the German Social Democratic Party (SPD). The purpose of this book is to investigate who within the three parties determines EU policies and selects EU specialists, such as the candidates for European parliamentary elections and EU spokespersons.

The book utilises a principal-agent framework to investigate the delegation of power inside the three parties across multiple levels and faces. It draws on over 65 original interviews with EU experts from the three national parties and the Party of European Socialists (PES) and an e-mail questionnaire. This book reveals that European policy has largely remained in the hands of the party leadership. Its findings suggest that the party grassroots are interested in EU affairs, but that interest rarely translates into influence, as information asymmetry between the grassroots and the party leadership makes it very difficult for local activists to scrutinise elected politicians and to come up with their own policy proposals. As regards the selection of EU specialists, such as candidates for the European parliamentary elections, this book highlights that the parties’ processes are highly political, often informal, and in some cases, undemocratic.

addition, changing technology and modes of organisation affect professionalism and professional autonomy as well (Broadbent et al. 1997: 10). According to Broadbent and colleagues, neoliberal values and new ways of organising work result in three issues or tensions in how professionalism may develop: firstly, professionals – this book’s welfare workers – are caught in the tensions between their (professional) autonomy as experts and the control mechanisms of their work organisation. Secondly, professionals engage with both a (professional) expert identity and an

in The power of citizens and professionals in welfare encounters
Open Access (free)

Alexander Armstrong and Ben Miller used a similar device in the twenty-first century with a sketch of Second World War Royal Air Force fighter pilots using the vocabulary of twenty-first century youth in the professional accents of the 1940s. 39 It is a dimension of identity recognised by writers across the generations. Changing the way you speak changes who you are, or who you are publicly. When Edgar in Shakespeare's King Lear wishes to conceal his identity from his blind father, he adopts a rustic accent and becomes a peasant and a stranger. 40 Fathers were not

in Cultivating political and public identity
Open Access (free)

accept the essential shallowness of nationhood; once you understand that a national identity can be designed in a cynical, professional and calculated way as a life assurance company’s corporate personality, you will see why, though our nationhood has fewer certainties, it has fewer shackles too. 1 Some analysts see ‘nations’ as modern ideas, largely

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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Place, identity and peacebuilding

-conflict societies as convenient employment places with high salaries and diplomatic privileges and immunities. Long-term foreign workers acting as behavioural insiders often create their own habitus in post-conflict societies, interact only among themselves and avoid the everyday life and complex reality of post-conflict people. Long-term foreign workers are resilient agents, adaptable and capable of transforming their personal and professional ­identities to and moving from one peace operation to another. The time that behavioural insiders spend in post-conflict places does not

in The politics of identity
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bureaucrat, who arrives at his office on time each morning because not to do so would conflict with his own sense of himself as a dedicated professional, provides an example of such coherence, or impetus towards coherence. Geoffrey Hawthorn employs a similar conception, borrowing the phrase ‘necessary identity’ from Bernard Williams and describing ‘an identity such that someone who has it feels bound to act in ways that maintain their identity in the eyes of others’. 12 If the relationship between the dimensions of identity is symbiotic/organic rather than mechanical

in Cultivating political and public identity
Open Access (free)

6 The plumage of Britannia The variety of British identity In 1951 the poet Laurie Lee wrote a commentary for the Lion and the Unicorn Pavilion at the Festival of Britain. The intimation of the pavilion's presentation was of a homogeneous British character, but Lee's Britain was diverse not monolithic, characterised by its variety rather than by some pervasive essence, and he observed that ‘the British do not simply leave the development of language to the professionals of literature’, and that the ‘Cockney has added a

in Cultivating political and public identity
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defined up front. The concept of citizen refers to civilians who encounter the welfare state, not because of their professional work identities as teachers, lawyers, doctors, social workers, technicians and so on, but because they have a social problem that requires help or attention from the welfare state. The concept of social problems refers to the idea that citizens do not only encounter welfare workers because of issues, which most would identify as actual problems (such as unemployment, illness and homelessness). They also encounter welfare workers with issues

in The power of citizens and professionals in welfare encounters
Open Access (free)
The oddity of democracy

4 Caps of liberty: the oddity of democracy The oddity of democracy In the third year of the French Revolution Louis XVI, having put his signature to a new constitution, was shown in a variety of popular prints with a cap of liberty on his head ( figure 8 ). It may have been an uncongenial identity for the king, but it graphically presented the unique paradox and oddity of democracy. The head of state was one of the people and a subject like everyone else, and, by inversion, the subjects were also sovereign. Louis XVI was

in Cultivating political and public identity