Mark Doidge, Radosław Kossakowski and Svenja Mintert

displayed a giant choreography of a skull with a cowboy hat and masked face above a banner reading ‘Bandit city, bandit club’. One of the chants of Motor’s ultras contains the words: ‘It is our habitat of lawlessness’. Similarly, the Brigate Autonome Livornesi displayed ‘Fino all’ultimo bandito’ (‘Until the last bandit’). This became immortalised in a song about the Livorno ultras by the Italian punks Banda Bassotti that highlights the crossover between wider subcultures associated with anti-establishment viewpoints. These groups recognise the borders of social norms and

in Ultras
Mark Doidge, Radosław Kossakowski and Svenja Mintert

in places where direct contact is difficult. The Indonesian context also highlights, as with Italy, Germany and Eastern Europe before, that the wider political and social context has a dramatic influence on the development of ultras culture. Under the authoritarian ‘New Order’ presidency of Suharto, censorship and ideological conformism was enforced. After the revolution in 1998, new political and cultural freedoms opened up. The punk and hip-hop scenes flourished and the ultras emerged out of this cultural milieu. DOIDGE__9780719027624_Print.indd 91 08

in Ultras