Race, locality and resistance
Author: Shirin Hirsch

Fifty years ago Enoch Powell made national headlines with his 'Rivers of Blood' speech, warning of an immigrant invasion in the once respectable streets of Wolverhampton. This local fixation brought the Black Country town into the national spotlight, yet Powell's unstable relationship with Wolverhampton has since been overlooked. Drawing from oral history and archival material, this book offers a rich local history through which to investigate the speech, bringing to life the racialised dynamics of space during a critical moment in British history. What was going on beneath the surface in Wolverhampton and how did Powell's constituents respond to this dramatic moment? The research traces the ways in which Powell's words reinvented the town and uncovers highly contested local responses. While Powell left Wolverhampton in 1974, the book returns to the city to explore the collective memories of the speech that continue to reverberate. In a contemporary period of new crisis and division, examining the shadow of Powell allows us to reflect on racism and resistance from 1968 to the present day.

Author: Lucy Bland

This book recounts the little-known history of the mixed-race children born to black American servicemen and white British women during the Second World War. Of the three million American soldiers stationed in Britain from 1942 to 1945, about 8 per cent (240,000) were African-American; the latter’s relationships with British women resulted in the birth of an estimated 2,000 babies. The African-American press named these children ‘brown babies’; the British called them ‘half-castes’. Black GIs, in this segregated army, were forbidden to marry their white girlfriends. Up to half of the mothers of these babies, faced with the stigma of illegitimacy and a mixed-race child, gave their children up for adoption. The outcome for these children tended to be long-term residency in children’s homes, sometimes followed by fostering and occasionally adoption, but adoption societies frequently would not take on ‘coloured’ children, who were thought to be ‘too hard to place’. There has been minimal study of these children and the difficulties they faced, such as racism in a (then) very white Britain, lack of family or a clear identity. Accessibly written and illustrated with numerous photographs, this book presents the stories of over forty of these children. While some of the accounts of early childhood are heart-breaking, there are also many uplifting narratives of finding American fathers and gaining a sense of self and of heritage.

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1990s style and the perennial return of Goth
Catherine Spooner

Gothic and Goth: new interventions At the end of the 1970s, a new youth subculture emerged from the fragmenting Punk scene, commonly known as Goth. Goth seemed to take the trappings of Gothic literature and film and convert them into a symbolic form of resistance to a suburban Britain (and subsequently America, Australia and elsewhere) perceived as

in Fashioning Gothic bodies
A generation of loyal patriots?
Anna Saunders

who openly rejected the party’s military propaganda, along with GDR society in general. This group was divided into two contrasting subgroups: right-wing skinheads and pacifist punks. The first, skinheads, embraced military life as one of their most important principles, and were, in many ways, ideal candidates for the NVA, placing importance on discipline, physical fitness and a healthy lifestyle. Some skinhead groups thus organised paramilitary weekend training camps, and attempts were even made to recruit members through GST groups. Their enthusiasm was not

in Honecker’s children
Carrie Hamilton

their movement’s political agenda or culture.32 These observations echo those made by narrator #16 a decade ago that feminism was ‘unfinished business’ (see chapter 7). This narrator noted in particular the contradiction between the rising number of young women active in the radical nationalist youth movement (then Jarrai), and the persisting lack of impact of feminism on the movement as a whole. Recent anthropological and linguistic studies of youth and Basque culture help to shed some light on this issue. Sharryn Kasmir’s study of the Basque punk movement in the 1980

in Women and ETA
Bernard O’Donoghue

and it filled all the house where they were sitting.’10 In a different spirit, the occasional anti-Christian sardonicism of another compassionate humanist poet, Paul Durcan, falls back on the terminology of religion in poems such as ‘The seminary’ and squibs such as ‘Irish hierarchy bans colour photography’. And Durcan’s apparent iconoclasm can be subtle too, as in the wonderful poem on the death of the Punk singer Sid Vicious which suddenly ends in a prayer: ‘Jesus, break his fall!’11 Like many other twentieth-century Irish poets, the language of religion is Durcan

in Irish Catholic identities
Stanley R. Sloan

rights and his particularly violent crackdown on homosexuality. Those who protest Putin’s rule, like the women of the Russian punk rock group Pussy Riot, become targets of ridicule, violence, arrest and imprisonment. In this area, Putin has closely aligned with the Russian Orthodox Church, which has in return offered strong support and endorsement of Putin’s socially conservative policies. Putin’s conversion from a servant of “godless” communism in the Soviet Union to near-sainthood status in the Russian Orthodox Church of the Russian Federation has been just short of

in Transatlantic traumas
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Death of the GDR – rebirth of an eastern identity?
Anna Saunders

the fact that supporters of both political extremes have frequently shared similar concerns and interests, especially in the GDR, where movement between minority groups, such as punks and skinheads, was common. In contrast to Martin Walser’s claim that right-wing extremism is caused by ‘the neglect of the national’,7 it would seem, rather, that quite the opposite cause is true: the neglect of the private. Despite notable instances of extremism, political apathy marks the second major parallel between both systems. With the exception of the Wende period, which saw a

in Honecker’s children
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The sounds of liberty
Kate Bowan and Paul A. Pickering

of a recent song, well beyond the chronology of our study, provides an illustration of the approach we take. The lyrics to English Civil War , a song by British punk band The Clash, were self-evidently a contribution to the bitter campaign against racism underway at the end of the 1970s. As the title suggests, the song contained several references linking the fascistic National Front to Cromwell’s New

in Sounds of liberty
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The moron as a poorly functioning human
Gerald V. O’Brien

. 92. 99 Ibid. 100 Weir noted that even up to the beginning of World War II ‘there were “incubator baby sideshows”, displaying premature and deformed infants for the curious public who paid to see the shows’. R.F. Weir, Selective Nontreatment of Handicapped Newborns (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984), p. 21. Also popular, and of even more recent vintage, were ‘pickled punks’, which were deformed fetuses that had been preserved in jars and displayed as a curiosity. See R. West, Pickled Punks and Girlie Shows: A Life Spent on the Midways of America (Atglen

in Framing the moron