established artistic and academic
sponsors somewhere in the background. For example, a recent
publication Splitting the Atom on Dalston Lane: The Birth of the
Do-It-Yourself Punk Movement in March 1977 (Williamson, 2009 ) presented an assembly of
contributors that included printers, poets and artist collectives,
and a text that gave testimony to the many stages on the way to
rights and his particularly violent crackdown on homosexuality. Those who protest Putin’s rule, like the women of the Russian punk rock group Pussy Riot, become targets of ridicule, violence, arrest and imprisonment. In this area, Putin has closely aligned with the Russian Orthodox Church, which has in return offered strong support and endorsement of Putin’s socially conservative policies. Putin’s conversion from a servant of “godless” communism in the Soviet Union to near-sainthood status in the Russian Orthodox Church of the Russian Federation has been just short of
Shiona Chillas, Melinda Grewar and Barbara Townley
field, is defended or challenged by players. 24 Dominant players employ conservation strategies to derive profit from their accumulated capitals, while these are relentlessly challenged by newcomers to the field attempting to subvert existing principles of domination for their own interest. Subversion may occur, for example, when a traditional textile such as tartan becomes associated with the punk movement, losing one type of symbolic capital, yet gaining a new audience and cult following. 25 In the economy of cultural goods such as indigenous textiles, symbolic
colourists, Tim Burton. In Edward Scissorhands , the vivid primaries used for the suburb’s houses would seem to connote optimism and well-being; however, the excessive saturation of these colours, coupled with the fact that no darker or mixed shades are visible, alerts the spectator to a critique of suburban blandness and conformity. By contrast, black in the clothing worn by Johnny Depp as Edward carries suggestions of rebelliously Gothic, romantic, even punk sensibility (as well as hinting at a racial diversity repressed by the all-white suburb). While maintaining a
character, with a back story, like his real-life counterpart, including a career in the KGB and a relatively recent divorce. In real life, Putin has been noted for what at best has appeared to be misplaced chivalry and at worst has been outright intimidation. Despite claims to the contrary, this portrayal has not gone unnoticed, with Putin denying House of Cards the right to film at the United Nations. The response from the show was to significantly up the ante. Four years after their arrest and imprisonment, the Russian punk group Pussy Riot appeared on House of Cards
1980s, fashion studies has blossomed into a field that encompasses a large literature on clothing, meaning, and cultural identity. 13 We now have a deep understanding of fashion and the body, apparel production, gender and dress, and a range of subcultural looks, from the zoot suit to Punk. 14 A slew of talented researchers in cultural history, sociology, and anthropology have contributed to the growth of fashion studies as a vibrant field.
1.2 Byrrh Advertisement by Georges Léonnec, L’Illustration , 16 April 1932, illustrating the interwar influence of
This book argues that music is an integral part of society – one amongst various
interwoven forms of social interaction which comprise our social world; and
shows that it has multiple valences which embed it within that wider world.
Musical interactions are often also economic interactions, for example, and
sometimes political interactions. They can be forms of identity work and
contribute to the reproduction or bridging of social divisions. These valances
allow music both to shape and be shaped by the wider network of relations and
interactions making up our societies, in their local, national and global
manifestations. The book tracks and explores these valances, combining a
critical consideration of the existing literature with the development of an
original, ‘relational’ approach to music sociology. The book extends the project
begun in Crossley’s earlier work on punk and post-punk ‘music worlds’,
revisiting this concept and the network ideas underlying it whilst both
broadening the focus through a consideration of wider musical forms and by
putting flesh on the bones of the network idea by considering the many types of
interaction and relationships involved in music and the meanings which music has
for its participants. Patterns of connection between music’s participants are
important, whether they be performers, audience members or one of the various
‘support personnel’ who mediate between performers and audiences. However, so
are the different uses to which participants put their participation and the
meanings they co-create. These too must be foci for a relational music
(technically ‘ edges ’). Figure 5.1 gives an example from my earlier work (Crossley 2015a ). It visualises the network of key artists and support personnel in the Liverpool post-punk music world of the late 1970s, as derived from analysis of archives and secondary sources. Nodes are linked where I was able to identify evidence of musical collaboration between them between 1975 and 1980.
5.1 Liverpool's punk/post-punk world, 1975–80.
Note that this is a snapshot of a dynamic relational structure which was always in-process. In most
innovations in form in early UK punk music generated ‘shock effects’ which unsettled audiences, engendering a more critical attitude. Moreover, Hebdige's ( 1988 ) analysis of sub-cultural style in some ways echoes Adorno, pointing to the way in which sub-cultural styles challenge convention and, in the case of punk in particular, denaturalise social order. It is unlikely that Adorno would have expressed anything but scorn for punk had he lived to hear it, but these analyses suffice to show that a more open-minded appropriation of his concern with form and its effects might
intellectual trajectory, which the present book continues, elaborating further the distinctive relational approach to music sociology sketched therein, requires brief elaboration.
Several years ago I wrote a book about the origins of punk and post-punk in the UK (Crossley 2015a ). In this book, taking Becker ( 1974, 1982 ) as my point of departure, I developed a concept of ‘music worlds’ to capture, amongst other things, the network of participants involved (i.e. musicians, audience members and the assortment of managers, promoters, engineers etc. whom Becker