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relations of power onto the landscape. This was less about creating a sense of national unity through contact and communication, and more about subjugating and controlling the native population. The French colonisation of Vietnam involved huge investment in public works to facilitate the exploitation of its resources and provide access to other potential riches, hence the building of a railway to China. By 1931, 2,500 kilometres

in Soldered states

, warning that Ankara would consider any attempt by Athens to take these islands by force a casus belli . In late January 1996, the two countries nearly came to blows over the Imia/Kardak islets, a few miles off the Anatolian shore alongside the Dodecanese islands. As this the first time Turkey had called into question Greek sovereignty in Greek territory, it is hardly surprising that the incident rang alarm bells in Athens. 11 Equally worrying for Greece, is the fact that at an 80–100 percent degree of readiness, the Turkish forces stationed opposite the Greek Aegean

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
The Indian diaspora

were replaced by indentured workers as the main source of plantation labour. Indenture (or the “coolie system”) involved recruitment of large groups of workers, sometimes by force, and their transportation to another area for work. British colonial authorities recruited over 30 million people from the Indian sub-continent’ (Appleyard cited in Castles and Miller, 1993: 49). However, not all the migrants 177 178 India in a globalized world were indentured labour – some were railway builders and administrators. Some of the migration was free-market migration

in India in a globalized world
Open Access (free)

, concludes its work. 11 July 1988 Trial concludes of right-wing extremists relating to bombing at Bologna railway station. Four terrorists receive life sentences. 3 February 1991 Founding conference of PDS (formed by former PCI members) approves name of new party, following official disbandment of PCI that day. 10 February 1991 Bossi creates Northern League party, linking various

in The politics today companion to West European Politics

takeover by the Crown meant more charges had to be met.The disloyalty of many Indian troops led to more British troops being stationed in India after the mutiny of 1857, the expansion of the Indian railways led to debts that had to be serviced and there was also the expansion of the British Indian administration. Silver remittances and the use of the India–China–Great Britain trade triangle were no longer enough. In the late nineteenth century, India exported more and more agricultural produce to Europe and imported industrial goods from there. India was an important

in India in a globalized world

openness as both a desirable end in itself and as a means of reviving an inert society. Problems should be faced openly and honestly and not denied as had been the practice under past Soviet leaderships. Debate began on formerly ‘closed’ issues such as the role of women in Soviet society, the environment (particularly after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in Kiev on 26 April 1986) and the problem of crime in

in The politics today companion to West European Politics

, for example, twnety-five bilateral agreements having been signed between the two countries by 2006. These agreements have advanced cooperation in a whole host of areas, including communications satellites, cellular phones, radar equipment, railways, anti-poverty programmes and agriculture amongst others. The most important, of course, are in energy. One of the latest to be signed, in May 2008, establishes a joint venture company between the Chinese state oil company CNPC and its Venezuelan counterpart, PdVSA, to exploit the Orinoco oil belt in Eastern Venezuela

in Hugo Chávez and the Bolivarian revolution
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China’s first intervention

Communist army. One prisoner, whose information was unconfirmed, said that 5,000 men crossed with him, from China, over a railway bridge leading to Sinuiju.18 On 6 November, the Cabinet held a preliminary discussion about the possible consequences of Chinese intervention in Korea. They were informed that the United States was thinking of moving a resolution in the Security Council calling on all Member States to refrain from assisting the North Koreans. Bevin was anxious to avoid any extension of the area of hostilities, such as might follow from the application of United

in Britain’s Korean War

beautiful gardens; he designed the famous Shalimar gardens in Srinagar, Kashmir. Jahangir started the practice of moving to hill stations during the summer months, a practice which the British continued. Jahangir died in October 1627 and was succeeded by one of his sons, Shah Jahan, who had rebelled against him during his lifetime and eliminated his rivals with his father-in-law’s help. His father-in-law, Asaf Khan, Nur Jahan’s brother, had been appointed premier by her. However, she was unable to manipulate him after Jahangir’s death and when Shah Jahan became emperor

in India in a globalized world
Open Access (free)

votes to the Islamic parties, they altered the political balance in Turkey’s municipalities, and doubly so at the national governmental level. Some grave consequences have followed upon this trend. Wherever the Muslims were triumphant, hostels for battered women were closed. In a number of places restaurants serving alcohol were shut down. Efforts were made to segregate men and women on public transport, and Muslim mayors have made such changes as painting all the bus stations green, the color of Islam. Banning was imposed on immodest advertising

in Turkey: facing a new millennium