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Kremenchug. However, refugees frequently ignored instructions. As a leading Russian military figure wrote: ‘when moving by railway or by road [they] avoided or missed the defined routes and moved in all kinds of different directions, embracing wider and wider regions’.5 This ‘spontaneity’ reflected the lack of resources and the fact that officials failed to co-ordinate refugees’ movement. In addition, refugees more often than not changed their route themselves in order to feel safer. Matters were not helped by poor transport infrastructure. Railway stations were so

in Europe on the move
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Refugees in Russia, 1914-18

-villages were unable to find a berth because the train was overcrowded and crowds of refugees had already been waiting for their turn for more than two weeks. When he decided to take a cart to the station at Baranovichi station, he described seeing ‘so many people that you couldn’t squeeze between them’. The same was true of Bobruisk. People could only board the train in Roslavl, which lay in Smolensk province.21 The numbers only began to abate in October 1915, as a result of improvement in the operation of the Russian railways. Some of the challenges emerge in the personal

in Europe on the move
Refugees in the Austrian part of the Habsburg Empire during the First World War

in the refugee camps. Refugees were transported in freight wagons that carried the inscription, ‘40 men or 6 horses’.18 Trains were guarded, so as to hinder the refugees from getting off before they reached the prescribed destination. Some refugees had already completed tiring journeys by foot or wagon before reaching villages with rail connections. In the bigger towns and cities officials gathered the refugees together prior to transporting them v 135 v Martina Hermann towards the western regions of the monarchy via so called perlustration stations. By departure

in Europe on the move
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army on the rail transport system, and government efforts to evacuate industrial assets from the threatened western borderlands of the Russian Empire, and partly because provincial governors and municipal authorities were keen to offload refugees on to other jurisdictions at the earliest opportunity. Contemporary depictions of overcrowded railway stations where refugees were frequently a visible presence, as well as stories of crime, damage to property, and infectious disease gave hardpressed officials the ammunition they needed to claim that they could not cope.21

in Europe on the move
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relations of power onto the landscape. This was less about creating a sense of national unity through contact and communication, and more about subjugating and controlling the native population. The French colonisation of Vietnam involved huge investment in public works to facilitate the exploitation of its resources and provide access to other potential riches, hence the building of a railway to China. By 1931, 2,500 kilometres

in Soldered states

, warning that Ankara would consider any attempt by Athens to take these islands by force a casus belli . In late January 1996, the two countries nearly came to blows over the Imia/Kardak islets, a few miles off the Anatolian shore alongside the Dodecanese islands. As this the first time Turkey had called into question Greek sovereignty in Greek territory, it is hardly surprising that the incident rang alarm bells in Athens. 11 Equally worrying for Greece, is the fact that at an 80–100 percent degree of readiness, the Turkish forces stationed opposite the Greek Aegean

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
The Indian diaspora

were replaced by indentured workers as the main source of plantation labour. Indenture (or the “coolie system”) involved recruitment of large groups of workers, sometimes by force, and their transportation to another area for work. British colonial authorities recruited over 30 million people from the Indian sub-continent’ (Appleyard cited in Castles and Miller, 1993: 49). However, not all the migrants 177 178 India in a globalized world were indentured labour – some were railway builders and administrators. Some of the migration was free-market migration

in India in a globalized world
Open Access (free)

, concludes its work. 11 July 1988 Trial concludes of right-wing extremists relating to bombing at Bologna railway station. Four terrorists receive life sentences. 3 February 1991 Founding conference of PDS (formed by former PCI members) approves name of new party, following official disbandment of PCI that day. 10 February 1991 Bossi creates Northern League party, linking various

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Refugee communities and the state in France, 1914–18

and southern mining towns such as Montceau-les-Mines, which hosted 1,351 miners from the Germanoccupied regions in December 1915.18 In Paris, too, refugees from particular locations grouped together, often around the railway stations that were their gateways into the city – the Gare du Nord for refugees from the Nord, and the Gare de l’Est for those from the Marne.19 This collective geography of displacement, which saw refugees from the same locations cohabiting in a restricted number of towns within a restricted number of departments, meant that refugees lived

in Europe on the move

and Thrace, and the flow continued thereafter. The v 275 v Nikolai Vukov gloomy scenes of displaced people crowding at the Bulgarian borders surpassed even the drama of the Balkan Wars. The Bulgarian Red Cross Society and international observers described the resulting desperation: Even in this severe weather – November – endless lines of old people, of women and children, stiff from cold and dampness, silenced by their great sorrow for their lost homes, move with bowed heads toward unknown lands.66 The streams of wretched refugees at stations and check-points, in

in Europe on the move