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more to follow. Meanwhile, Guise used her French reinforcements to fortify Leith, the port which has since been swallowed by Edinburgh but which was then a separate town. This provoked genuine alarm, and brought some significant newcomers to the Congregation’s ranks: in particular James, Duke of Châtelherault, the heir to the throne. Châtelherault’s commitment to the religious cause was always lukewarm, but that of his son, the young Earl of Arran, newly escaped from gilded captivity in France, was passionate. Buoyed by these new 162 TOOC08 162 29/3/06, 2:27 PM

in The origins of the Scottish Reformation
A conceptual history 1200–1900

This collection explores how concepts of intellectual or learning disability evolved from a range of influences, gradually developing from earlier and decidedly distinct concepts, including ‘idiocy’ and ‘folly’, which were themselves generated by very specific social and intellectual environments. With essays extending across legal, educational, literary, religious, philosophical, and psychiatric histories, this collection maintains a rigorous distinction between historical and contemporary concepts in demonstrating how intellectual disability and related notions were products of the prevailing social, cultural, and intellectual environments in which they took form, and themselves performed important functions within these environments. Focusing on British and European material from the middle ages to the late nineteenth century, this collection asks ‘How and why did these concepts form?’ ‘How did they connect with one another?’ and ‘What historical circumstances contributed to building these connections?’ While the emphasis is on conceptual history or a history of ideas, these essays also address the consequences of these defining forces for the people who found themselves enclosed by the shifting definitional field.

gathering’s texts on church government none the less came to dominate all subsequent forms of presbyterian government and are thus of the highest significance for the history of presbyterian polity. Unsurprisingly, the story of the assembly’s debates on the subject, the religious politics associated with them and the subsequent legacy of the assembly’s texts have been variously narrated, 104 Presbyterian ecclesiologies often with parties lionised or demonised by their respective denominational constituencies. More consistently told has been the story of lost credibility

in Church polity and politics in the British Atlantic world, c. 1635–66
An exploration of church polity and the governance of the region’s churches

aspects of church polity that will be examined in the following pages with the intention of prompting a reappraisal: the nature of the true church; the distribution of power within the church; and the relationship of individual congregations to the larger community of faith.2 THE EARLY CHURCH POLITY OF THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY The settlers of New England had been born in a country where the local units of religious life were parishes that had existed for centuries. There were no parishes in New England and the immigrants were not likely to ask the English bishops

in Church polity and politics in the British Atlantic world, c. 1635–66

religious congregations with diverse international memberships, sisters were expected to leave their national attachments behind them, but local circumstances and personal attachments often meant that this was difficult in reality. Europe and North America witnessed an explosion in the number of women religious during the nineteenth century and this was the result of sustained economic growth, legislative reform and ultramontanism. The pioneer institutes had inspired countless women to either join existing communities or to found new ones. This migration to the religious

in Creating a Scottish Church

because they wanted ‘something respectable to build’. 47 Clearly different groups within the lay community wanted different things from the Church. Congregations were also composed of people who were from various ethnic backgrounds and who had brought different religious cultures with them when they emigrated. Meeting the spiritual demands of these varied communities was a challenge for bishops and clergy who

in An Anglican British World

, there was further progress in Hertz’s relationship with the congregation, when Hertz attended and spoke at the opening of the synagogue’s Stern Hall. He said, ‘I am the last person in the world to minimize the significance of religious difference in Jewry. If I have nevertheless decided to be with you this morning it is because of my conviction that far more calamitous than religious differences in Jewry is religious indifference in Jewry’.52 Although Hertz was always, and somewhat inconsistently, less antagonistic toward English Reform than the Liberal movement it was

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970

at Jamberoo over religious practice. These originated in the different Anglican traditions which members of the congregation brought with them from England and Ireland. The tensions had given rise to very public expressions of disapproval by different sections of the congregation only a few years before Sharpe’s visit, and these still simmered under the surface in 1869. The ‘specimen of correct

in Imperial spaces

were more than twice as many nuns as priests, and seven times more nuns than brothers.1 There were eleven convents in Ireland in 1800, 368 a hundred years later, and convents at the dawn of the twentieth century were much larger than they had been even fifty years earlier.2 Applicants to the religious life had become so numerous by the 1890s that one Good Shepherd sister lamented; ‘The labourers are many but the harvest is lacking’ – there was not enough work, in her congregation at least, for all the candidates.3 It became common for a number of sisters from one

in Irish Catholic identities

are ultimately derived from duties to God. Rather, it raises the question of how closely related the principles of the Levellers’ religious and political thought were to each other. Woodhouse influentially claimed that – in spite of a separation between the spheres of nature and grace – democratic principles were imported into politics by analogy from the gathered congregations with which the Levellers were familiar, and that the idea of a religious covenant was translated into the political notion of the Agreement of the People.5 Robertson, while abandoning

in The Levellers