did not state so explicitly, the lumping together of the deaf or dumb, insane, intoxicated and children as unsuitable prefigures the wider cross-cultural practice – later Roman or medieval laws – of excluding such persons deemed insufficiently mature or mentally adept enough to perform tasks related to legal or religious offices. According to the Babylonian Talmud , a person who was, in modern parlance, either mentally ill or intellectually disabled was considered a person without reason and, by extension, mentally and legally incompetent, which is why under
The hospital movement in Europe arose out of a tradition of charity and religious life that originated in the earliest days of Christianity. The perception of who deserved charity and whose responsibility it was to provide such relief changed considerably by the twelfth century as the populations of cities grew and the ability of ecclesiastical institutions to serve them diminished. The perception of personal charity shifted from the idea of caritas to misericordia . Caritas , the term employed in the earlier Middle Ages, refers to
) response: ‘We seek the priest's old one-eyed whore.’ This fictional account of 1515 is illustrated with a woodcut representing the brawling participants at the performance's sorry climax. It confirms routine use of costumes and props, lay as well as clerical participants, and Latin text incomprehensible to the congregation.
When such Easter ceremonies were taken out of the context of their religious services, they became more independent of the liturgy. This facilitated the creative expansion of their treatment of the
friend, admirer, and patron of both orders, and they in turn participated energetically in the campaign on behalf of his canonisation, their later claims had the benefit of verisimilitude. The historical truth mattered little given that he had become a saint for all eternity back in 1297. No one was going to have to prove that the king of France belonged to any religious order. Not so for the wine porter of Cremona. 2
Figure 19 This anonymous portrait of Alberto, unmistakably a
Alison I. Beach, Shannon M.T. Li and Samuel S. Sutherland
Book Four opens with the election in 1116 of a successor for Abbot Theodoric. Here the chronicler offers a view of the perils of such moments of transition in the life of a religious community. The process of selecting a new superior could expose and exacerbate existing internal divisions and tensions, and could sometimes lead to bitter discontent and schism. Abbatial elections could also invite attempts, in this case by Bishop-elect Ulrich I, to pressure, influence, and increase control. The chronicler’s account of the process, and particularly
to later pastors of stable congregations, such visitors were unwelcome because of the potential danger these represented for their flocks and of the certain challenge these posed to their own authority. Gregory described vividly a particularly colourful character that he labelled the ‘bogus Christ of Bourges’ and recounted with satisfaction how the bishop of Le Puy had him killed. Gregory added that he had seen a number of these men with their entourages of ‘foolish women’ whom they had deceived into becoming their followers and to proclaiming them to be saints
Roman pontiff who, as the heir to the apostle Peter held the powers of binding and loosing on earth and in heaven, the Church offered a ‘universal’ religious belief structure, a code of practice, as well as a social framework for the whole of society. Paradoxically, the Latin Church was itself to be transformed and defined in its attempts to consolidate its hold over the different peoples of western Europe.
Doctrine and belief
In medieval society, the Church fulfilled any number of religious and social roles. Inextricably intertwined, these functions reinforced
setting the twenty-first-century sculpture produces bodies that are
coterminously historical, contemporary, human and divine in a
mould whose synthesis would have been recognisable to a medieval
mind, even as it takes an unfamiliar shape.
As is very well known, cycles of mystery plays stage redemption history in local time and place. Within the duration of Corpus
Christi Day, townsfolk would watch their fellows become biblical characters performing Old and New Testament stories with
the materials of local guilds. With the Crucifixion staged by the
In one sense, there is nothing startling in what the Friar says: imitation of apostolic poverty was the founding principle of the mendicant orders. Yet as Axton and Happé first suggested, in the context of the heated religious culture of the 1520s there are enough hints here to cue an audience to suspect that this is no conventional mendicant, but rather a figure evocative of the religious dissent and radical preaching current in and around London.
A number of the terms he employs are freighted with evangelical
the abbot should be elected by the judgement of the entire congregation ( iudicio congregationis eligantur ). 56 The concern with unanimity and judgement among the entire religious community reveals a connection also to the sixth-century laws of Emperor Justinian 57 and the Formulary of Marculf . 58 Together with the exemption privileges granted by local bishops to the monasteries of Rebais (637), Saint-Médard at Soissons (666), Corbie (667), Galilea (667), Sainte-Colombe (670), Montier-en-Der (693), and Novalesa (728), great importance was given to the