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. 134 The very existence of religious schools was seen as a threat to the unity of the Republic, though for some time to come – much to the chagrin of the anticlerical press 135 – local councils were still calling on religious congregations to staff their school. Nevertheless, from the perspective of societal secularisation, republican cohesion through secular education indicated the displacement of the values formerly binding society – as well as the ‘volonté d’extirper toute idée religieuse’ 136 – and society’s reconfiguration into a system of secular or this

in Catholic literature and secularisation in France and England, 1880–1914

, rejecting individual secularisation means not totally abandoning buffered individuality, but opening it to the possibilities which religious porosity makes available. Verlaine and Thompson exemplify in other words the openness of which immanence is capable. Marriage In a period of waxing secularisation which had seen divorce legislation and, in France, considerable hostility to religious congregations, it is no surprise that Christian marriage and the monastic life become key concerns for many Catholic writers. Seen in

in Catholic literature and secularisation in France and England, 1880–1914

grip on all its ministers and congregations. It is therefore simple Protestant propaganda which makes people think of Scotland as a Presbyterian country. There were Catholic enclaves in plenty; the Episcopalian Church (essentially an Anglican version or imitation), flourished in various parts of the Lowlands; and a variety of -isms which rose to bestrew the religious landscape, like mushrooms in the night.41 In 1690, to be sure, the Westminster Parliament had attempted to impose Presbyterian government on Scotland by statute, but the results were not what that body

in Beyond the witch trials

secularisation posits, and as civil religion or Erastian types of state religion show, religious discourses can sometimes mask conditions that are fundamentally secular. Still, if we allow the objection, the question that needs to be addressed is why French and English Catholic writers should be so hostile to other kinds of religiosity, especially in a period which was increasingly difficult for religion in general and not just Catholicism. Was this merely the fruit of confessional rivalry? Was it, in the late nineteenth century, the result of their rejection of proto

in Catholic literature and secularisation in France and England, 1880–1914