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History and context
Sally Mayall Brasher

The hospital movement in Europe arose out of a tradition of charity and religious life that originated in the earliest days of Christianity. The perception of who deserved charity and whose responsibility it was to provide such relief changed considerably by the twelfth century as the populations of cities grew and the ability of ecclesiastical institutions to serve them diminished. The perception of personal charity shifted from the idea of caritas to misericordia . Caritas , the term employed in the earlier Middle Ages, refers to

in Hospitals and charity
Lester K. Little

friend, admirer, and patron of both orders, and they in turn participated energetically in the campaign on behalf of his canonisation, their later claims had the benefit of verisimilitude. The historical truth mattered little given that he had become a saint for all eternity back in 1297. No one was going to have to prove that the king of France belonged to any religious order. Not so for the wine porter of Cremona. 2 Figure 19 This anonymous portrait of Alberto, unmistakably a

in Indispensable immigrants
Abstract only
Lester K. Little

to later pastors of stable congregations, such visitors were unwelcome because of the potential danger these represented for their flocks and of the certain challenge these posed to their own authority. Gregory described vividly a particularly colourful character that he labelled the ‘bogus Christ of Bourges’ and recounted with satisfaction how the bishop of Le Puy had him killed. Gregory added that he had seen a number of these men with their entourages of ‘foolish women’ whom they had deceived into becoming their followers and to proclaiming them to be saints

in Indispensable immigrants
Kriston R. Rennie

the abbot should be elected by the judgement of the entire congregation ( iudicio congregationis eligantur ). 56 The concern with unanimity and judgement among the entire religious community reveals a connection also to the sixth-century laws of Emperor Justinian 57 and the Formulary of Marculf . 58 Together with the exemption privileges granted by local bishops to the monasteries of Rebais (637), Saint-Médard at Soissons (666), Corbie (667), Galilea (667), Sainte-Colombe (670), Montier-en-Der (693), and Novalesa (728), great importance was given to the

in Freedom and protection
Kriston R. Rennie

, Alfred Blumenstock noted 270 Schutzbriefe for the eleventh century and over two thousand for the twelfth. 11 The number of papal privileges issued in the tenth century (churches and monasteries) was ‘roughly a fifth of the number issued in the eleventh century, and within the eleventh century twice as many were issued in the second half as in the first’. 12 This proliferation of exemption privileges offers a convincing statistic of ‘growing confidence on the part of religious communities and their founders and patrons in the power of Saint Peter and his vicar to

in Freedom and protection
Lester K. Little

confraternities set up in nearly all parish churches, which have left extensive documentation including rules or statutes, membership lists, records of charitable donations and disbursements, etc. There were peace-keeping associations, such as the Consortium of Faith and Peace founded at Cremona in 1266. There were charitable associations, such as the many congregations for assisting the poor founded in Venice; in several places this sort of organisation was named a misericordia . 17 There were specialised charitable associations, such as the Consortium for Assisting

in Indispensable immigrants
Abstract only
Kriston R. Rennie

and governance of religious life. How and why did this custom of commendation develop throughout the early Middle Ages? How was it exercised and experienced? What did it look like and produce in practice? If the monasteries’ grand objective was freedom from outside interference, from the encroachment of secular and/or ecclesiastical lords, then it is well worth examining the papacy’s role in achieving this outcome. If episcopal power (i.e. rights and jurisdiction) encompassed spiritual and judicial control throughout a diocese, what role did the papacy exercise over

in Freedom and protection
Abstract only
Kriston R. Rennie

of assemblies, and the exercise of power ( potestas , dicio , dominatio ) over the religious community. With this privilege, the pope essentially redefined Corbie’s relationship with kings and bishops, which was previously determined by means of royal immunity. The novelty thus came from restricting episcopal authority and protecting the monastery from outside, worldly intervention. The significance of Corbie’s privileges was surely recognised by contemporaries. They also come to prominence two centuries later under Pope Leo IX (1049

in Freedom and protection
Lester K. Little

in German between 1619 and 1649, and one in Latin – published in Germany – in 1624. 5 Garzoni came from Bagnacavallo, near Ravenna, went to schools in Ravenna and Imola, and studied law and philosophy at Ferrara and Siena. He entered the Congregation of Lateran Canons and got assignments to teach sacred scripture and to preach. These he carried out for over two decades in Treviso, Venice, Padua, Ferrara, and Mantua. Not a particularly original or creative writer, Garzoni was an encyclopedist, skilled at gathering and putting in order vast amounts of written

in Indispensable immigrants
Defining the boundaries of Carolingian Christianity
Matthew Innes

constitute a secondary but all too easily overlooked theme of the royal ideology of the Lex Salica revision? This essay will argue that such claims were rooted in the debates staged at the Church councils of the 740s, and the development of a programme of religious ‘correction’. It argues that if we are to understand Carolingian notions of ecclesiastical order and Christian renewal as they were to emerge by

in Frankland