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more to follow. Meanwhile, Guise used her French reinforcements to fortify Leith, the port which has since been swallowed by Edinburgh but which was then a separate town. This provoked genuine alarm, and brought some significant newcomers to the Congregation’s ranks: in particular James, Duke of Châtelherault, the heir to the throne. Châtelherault’s commitment to the religious cause was always lukewarm, but that of his son, the young Earl of Arran, newly escaped from gilded captivity in France, was passionate. Buoyed by these new 162 TOOC08 162 29/3/06, 2:27 PM

in The origins of the Scottish Reformation

religious congregations with diverse international memberships, sisters were expected to leave their national attachments behind them, but local circumstances and personal attachments often meant that this was difficult in reality. Europe and North America witnessed an explosion in the number of women religious during the nineteenth century and this was the result of sustained economic growth, legislative reform and ultramontanism. The pioneer institutes had inspired countless women to either join existing communities or to found new ones. This migration to the religious

in Creating a Scottish Church

, there was further progress in Hertz’s relationship with the congregation, when Hertz attended and spoke at the opening of the synagogue’s Stern Hall. He said, ‘I am the last person in the world to minimize the significance of religious difference in Jewry. If I have nevertheless decided to be with you this morning it is because of my conviction that far more calamitous than religious differences in Jewry is religious indifference in Jewry’.52 Although Hertz was always, and somewhat inconsistently, less antagonistic toward English Reform than the Liberal movement it was

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970

were more than twice as many nuns as priests, and seven times more nuns than brothers.1 There were eleven convents in Ireland in 1800, 368 a hundred years later, and convents at the dawn of the twentieth century were much larger than they had been even fifty years earlier.2 Applicants to the religious life had become so numerous by the 1890s that one Good Shepherd sister lamented; ‘The labourers are many but the harvest is lacking’ – there was not enough work, in her congregation at least, for all the candidates.3 It became common for a number of sisters from one

in Irish Catholic identities
Abstract only

Aaron Hart as their rabbi in 1704, but as early as 1707 the Ashkenazi community began to fragment when Marcus Moses set up a synagogue in his home which eventually became the Hambro Synagogue.14 In 1760 a synagogue was founded in Westminster which became the Western Synagogue, and in 1761 the congregation that would evolve into the New Synagogue was founded, in addition to a number of other small synagogues and prayer groups (hevrot and minyanim).15 Aaron Hart was recognised as the religious authority for all London Jews, as was his successor, Hart Lyon (rabbi 1758

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970
Between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Letters

to the Society of Jesus, Propaganda decreed in 1625 that no alumni could be admitted to a religious congregation.32 However, the Maronite scholar Abraham Ecchellensis, alumnus of the college,33 explained that this new prohibition was not suitable for the Maronites, as some of the students wanted to join the order of Saint Antony ‘because many Maronite bishops were selected from that order’.34 For a similar reason, the congregation had already revoked an equivalent prohibition imposed on the Greek college.35 After its visitation of the college in 1629

in College communities abroad
The development of Protestantism in Nantes, 1558–72

. After 1558, up to thirty Protestant churches were founded at different times, especially in eastern and southern Brittany, with important congregations in Vitré, Rennes, and particularly, Nantes. The size of the church here was never large in comparison to cities such as Rouen or Troyes, but the presence of Protestantism had a profound effect upon religious culture and political life. The theory and practice of urban authority and governance were deeply affected, while the relationship between and the city and the crown was strained. In this chapter, the process and

in Authority and society in Nantes during the French wars of religion, 1559–98

with the state to improve educational standards.64 He believed firmly in having properly trained teachers and collaborated with religious congregations and clerics to establish three Catholic teacher training colleges: St Mary’s training college for men run by the Brothers of Christian Instruction in Hammersmith (1850); Mount Pleasant college for women run by the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur in Liverpool (1855); and Sacred Heart, a female college run by the Sisters of the Society of the Sacred Heart in Wandsworth (1874). These colleges were a direct attempt to

in Creating a Scottish Church
Abstract only

Protestant rebels, styling themselves ‘the Congregation’, quickly managed to secure either active or tacit support from most of Scotland’s political class. The religious issue was at the rebellion’s heart, and was the priority for most of its key leaders, to a greater extent than some recent historians have allowed. However, Mary of Guise’s clumsy military response to it, and the perceived tyranny of her French troops, also helped to mobilise Scottish opinion in favour of the rebels. Only now did the latent suspicion of France come to the fore. By contrast, the new

in The origins of the Scottish Reformation
A typology

Chapter 3 Jewish religious responses to modernity: a typology HIS BOOK ARGUES that the Chief Rabbis’ response to modernity should be viewed in the context of Jewish religious responses that emerged following the Enlightenment and Emancipation, some of which I have already mentioned. I will sketch out a possible typology of those responses, so that we can place the Chief Rabbis in that context. This typology does not presume to be a final scheme, nor does it seek to deny the massive variety of responses, many of which it does not include explicitly. It merely

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970