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Raluca Radulescu and Alison Truelove

artistic expression, much of the gentry’s involvement with the visual arts was religious in focus. In commissioning elaborate tombs and memorial brasses, its members had an outlet for visual expression of their status, which was legitimised by religious motives. Moreover, in contributing to the fabric of the parish church, they were able to enhance the religious experience of the wider congregation; once

in Gentry culture in late-medieval England
Anthony Musson

and barons was announced by the bishop of Norwich ‘by the great cross in the nave’ of St Paul’s Cathedral in London. 20 The religious overtones and notions of trust made them important political events, especially as markers of behaviour. Repudiating a sacred oath required papal release and absolution. 21 The oath taken by the sovereign at his coronation was a statement

in Medieval law in context
S. H. Rigby

, Chaucer takes our sinfulness for granted and is more interested in ‘the marvellous variety of life in a world which, however sinful, is the only world we’ve got’. For Robertson, even those medieval poems which do not explicitly address religious issues were frequently intended to promote the Augustinian doctrine of charity beneath a pleasing surface; for Donaldson, there are ‘no such poems in Middle

in Chaucer in context
S. H. Rigby

is better to marry than to be burnt’ (1 Corinthians 7: 9; LB: 18). Indeed, whether medieval writers presented women as members of their husband’s estate or whether women were presented as an estate in their own right, with their own internal sub-divisions into lay and religious, single, married and widowed, marriage was central to a woman’s social identity in a way that it was not for men, since

in Chaucer in context
Anthony Musson

employed against those who strayed from certain moral, ethical or religious codes. 43 In 1259, for example, an inhabitant of the borough of Scarborough who had refused to pay his share of a tax that was being levied was ‘put out of the community of Scarborough vill and banned by the whole vill, nor was anyone to communicate with him in making sales and purchases, and they

in Medieval law in context
Brian Sudlow

. 134 The very existence of religious schools was seen as a threat to the unity of the Republic, though for some time to come – much to the chagrin of the anticlerical press 135 – local councils were still calling on religious congregations to staff their school. Nevertheless, from the perspective of societal secularisation, republican cohesion through secular education indicated the displacement of the values formerly binding society – as well as the ‘volonté d’extirper toute idée religieuse’ 136 – and society’s reconfiguration into a system of secular or this

in Catholic literature and secularisation in France and England, 1880–1914
Brian Sudlow

, rejecting individual secularisation means not totally abandoning buffered individuality, but opening it to the possibilities which religious porosity makes available. Verlaine and Thompson exemplify in other words the openness of which immanence is capable. Marriage In a period of waxing secularisation which had seen divorce legislation and, in France, considerable hostility to religious congregations, it is no surprise that Christian marriage and the monastic life become key concerns for many Catholic writers. Seen in

in Catholic literature and secularisation in France and England, 1880–1914
Peter Maxwell-Stuart

grip on all its ministers and congregations. It is therefore simple Protestant propaganda which makes people think of Scotland as a Presbyterian country. There were Catholic enclaves in plenty; the Episcopalian Church (essentially an Anglican version or imitation), flourished in various parts of the Lowlands; and a variety of -isms which rose to bestrew the religious landscape, like mushrooms in the night.41 In 1690, to be sure, the Westminster Parliament had attempted to impose Presbyterian government on Scotland by statute, but the results were not what that body

in Beyond the witch trials
Brian Sudlow

secularisation posits, and as civil religion or Erastian types of state religion show, religious discourses can sometimes mask conditions that are fundamentally secular. Still, if we allow the objection, the question that needs to be addressed is why French and English Catholic writers should be so hostile to other kinds of religiosity, especially in a period which was increasingly difficult for religion in general and not just Catholicism. Was this merely the fruit of confessional rivalry? Was it, in the late nineteenth century, the result of their rejection of proto

in Catholic literature and secularisation in France and England, 1880–1914