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Alec Ryrie

more to follow. Meanwhile, Guise used her French reinforcements to fortify Leith, the port which has since been swallowed by Edinburgh but which was then a separate town. This provoked genuine alarm, and brought some significant newcomers to the Congregation’s ranks: in particular James, Duke of Châtelherault, the heir to the throne. Châtelherault’s commitment to the religious cause was always lukewarm, but that of his son, the young Earl of Arran, newly escaped from gilded captivity in France, was passionate. Buoyed by these new 162 TOOC08 162 29/3/06, 2:27 PM

in The origins of the Scottish Reformation
Cheshire on the eve of civil war
Authors: Richard Cust and Peter Lake

This book aims to revisit the county study as a way into understanding the dynamics of the English civil war during the 1640s. It explores gentry culture and the extent to which early Stuart Cheshire could be said to be a ‘county community’. It investigates the responses of the county’s governing elite and puritan religious establishment to highly polarising interventions by the central government and Laudian ecclesiastical authorities during Charles I’s Personal Rule. The second half of the book provides a rich and detailed analysis of the petitioning movements and side-taking in Cheshire during 1641-42. This important contribution to understanding the local origins and outbreak of civil war in England will be of interest to all students and scholars studying the English Revolution.

Chad Van Dixhoorn

gathering’s texts on church government none the less came to dominate all subsequent forms of presbyterian government and are thus of the highest significance for the history of presbyterian polity. Unsurprisingly, the story of the assembly’s debates on the subject, the religious politics associated with them and the subsequent legacy of the assembly’s texts have been variously narrated, 104 Presbyterian ecclesiologies often with parties lionised or demonised by their respective denominational constituencies. More consistently told has been the story of lost credibility

in Church polity and politics in the British Atlantic world, c. 1635–66
An exploration of church polity and the governance of the region’s churches
Francis J. Bremer

aspects of church polity that will be examined in the following pages with the intention of prompting a reappraisal: the nature of the true church; the distribution of power within the church; and the relationship of individual congregations to the larger community of faith.2 THE EARLY CHURCH POLITY OF THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY The settlers of New England had been born in a country where the local units of religious life were parishes that had existed for centuries. There were no parishes in New England and the immigrants were not likely to ask the English bishops

in Church polity and politics in the British Atlantic world, c. 1635–66
S. Karly Kehoe

religious congregations with diverse international memberships, sisters were expected to leave their national attachments behind them, but local circumstances and personal attachments often meant that this was difficult in reality. Europe and North America witnessed an explosion in the number of women religious during the nineteenth century and this was the result of sustained economic growth, legislative reform and ultramontanism. The pioneer institutes had inspired countless women to either join existing communities or to found new ones. This migration to the religious

in Creating a Scottish Church
A conceptual history 1200–1900

This collection explores how concepts of intellectual or learning disability evolved from a range of influences, gradually developing from earlier and decidedly distinct concepts, including ‘idiocy’ and ‘folly’, which were themselves generated by very specific social and intellectual environments. With essays extending across legal, educational, literary, religious, philosophical, and psychiatric histories, this collection maintains a rigorous distinction between historical and contemporary concepts in demonstrating how intellectual disability and related notions were products of the prevailing social, cultural, and intellectual environments in which they took form, and themselves performed important functions within these environments. Focusing on British and European material from the middle ages to the late nineteenth century, this collection asks ‘How and why did these concepts form?’ ‘How did they connect with one another?’ and ‘What historical circumstances contributed to building these connections?’ While the emphasis is on conceptual history or a history of ideas, these essays also address the consequences of these defining forces for the people who found themselves enclosed by the shifting definitional field.

Race, locality and resistance
Author: Shirin Hirsch

Fifty years ago Enoch Powell made national headlines with his 'Rivers of Blood' speech, warning of an immigrant invasion in the once respectable streets of Wolverhampton. This local fixation brought the Black Country town into the national spotlight, yet Powell's unstable relationship with Wolverhampton has since been overlooked. Drawing from oral history and archival material, this book offers a rich local history through which to investigate the speech, bringing to life the racialised dynamics of space during a critical moment in British history. What was going on beneath the surface in Wolverhampton and how did Powell's constituents respond to this dramatic moment? The research traces the ways in which Powell's words reinvented the town and uncovers highly contested local responses. While Powell left Wolverhampton in 1974, the book returns to the city to explore the collective memories of the speech that continue to reverberate. In a contemporary period of new crisis and division, examining the shadow of Powell allows us to reflect on racism and resistance from 1968 to the present day.

Joseph Hardwick

because they wanted ‘something respectable to build’. 47 Clearly different groups within the lay community wanted different things from the Church. Congregations were also composed of people who were from various ethnic backgrounds and who had brought different religious cultures with them when they emigrated. Meeting the spiritual demands of these varied communities was a challenge for bishops and clergy who

in An Anglican British World
Abstract only
A history of northern soul

This book is a social history of northern soul. It examines the origins and development of this music scene, its clubs, publications and practices, by locating it in the shifting economic and social contexts of the English midlands and north in the 1970s. The popularity of northern soul emerged in a period when industrial working-class communities were beginning to be transformed by deindustrialisation and the rise of new political movements around the politics of race, gender and locality. The book makes a significant contribution to the historiography of youth culture, popular music and everyday life in post-war Britain. The authors draw on an expansive range of sources including magazines/fanzines, diaries, letters, and a comprehensive oral history project to produce a detailed, analytical and empathetic reading of an aspect of working-class culture that was created and consumed by thousands of young men and women in the 1970s. A range of voices appear throughout the book to highlight the complexity of the role of class, race and gender, locality and how such identities acted as forces for both unity and fragmentation on the dance floors of iconic clubs such as the Twisted Wheel (Manchester), the Torch (Stoke-on-Trent), the Catacombs (Wolverhampton) and the Casino (Wigan).

Benjamin J. Elton

, there was further progress in Hertz’s relationship with the congregation, when Hertz attended and spoke at the opening of the synagogue’s Stern Hall. He said, ‘I am the last person in the world to minimize the significance of religious difference in Jewry. If I have nevertheless decided to be with you this morning it is because of my conviction that far more calamitous than religious differences in Jewry is religious indifference in Jewry’.52 Although Hertz was always, and somewhat inconsistently, less antagonistic toward English Reform than the Liberal movement it was

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970