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friend, admirer, and patron of both orders, and they in turn participated energetically in the campaign on behalf of his canonisation, their later claims had the benefit of verisimilitude. The historical truth mattered little given that he had become a saint for all eternity back in 1297. No one was going to have to prove that the king of France belonged to any religious order. Not so for the wine porter of Cremona. 2 Figure 19 This anonymous portrait of Alberto, unmistakably a

in Indispensable immigrants
Abstract only

to later pastors of stable congregations, such visitors were unwelcome because of the potential danger these represented for their flocks and of the certain challenge these posed to their own authority. Gregory described vividly a particularly colourful character that he labelled the ‘bogus Christ of Bourges’ and recounted with satisfaction how the bishop of Le Puy had him killed. Gregory added that he had seen a number of these men with their entourages of ‘foolish women’ whom they had deceived into becoming their followers and to proclaiming them to be saints

in Indispensable immigrants

confraternities set up in nearly all parish churches, which have left extensive documentation including rules or statutes, membership lists, records of charitable donations and disbursements, etc. There were peace-keeping associations, such as the Consortium of Faith and Peace founded at Cremona in 1266. There were charitable associations, such as the many congregations for assisting the poor founded in Venice; in several places this sort of organisation was named a misericordia . 17 There were specialised charitable associations, such as the Consortium for Assisting

in Indispensable immigrants

in German between 1619 and 1649, and one in Latin – published in Germany – in 1624. 5 Garzoni came from Bagnacavallo, near Ravenna, went to schools in Ravenna and Imola, and studied law and philosophy at Ferrara and Siena. He entered the Congregation of Lateran Canons and got assignments to teach sacred scripture and to preach. These he carried out for over two decades in Treviso, Venice, Padua, Ferrara, and Mantua. Not a particularly original or creative writer, Garzoni was an encyclopedist, skilled at gathering and putting in order vast amounts of written

in Indispensable immigrants
Laws and intellectual disability

did not state so explicitly, the lumping together of the deaf or dumb, insane, intoxicated and children as unsuitable prefigures the wider cross-cultural practice – later Roman or medieval laws – of excluding such persons deemed insufficiently mature or mentally adept enough to perform tasks related to legal or religious offices. According to the Babylonian Talmud , a person who was, in modern parlance, either mentally ill or intellectually disabled was considered a person without reason and, by extension, mentally and legally incompetent, which is why under

in Fools and idiots?

, Chaucer takes our sinfulness for granted and is more interested in ‘the marvellous variety of life in a world which, however sinful, is the only world we’ve got’. For Robertson, even those medieval poems which do not explicitly address religious issues were frequently intended to promote the Augustinian doctrine of charity beneath a pleasing surface; for Donaldson, there are ‘no such poems in Middle

in Chaucer in context

is better to marry than to be burnt’ (1 Corinthians 7: 9; LB: 18). Indeed, whether medieval writers presented women as members of their husband’s estate or whether women were presented as an estate in their own right, with their own internal sub-divisions into lay and religious, single, married and widowed, marriage was central to a woman’s social identity in a way that it was not for men, since

in Chaucer in context
History and context

The hospital movement in Europe arose out of a tradition of charity and religious life that originated in the earliest days of Christianity. The perception of who deserved charity and whose responsibility it was to provide such relief changed considerably by the twelfth century as the populations of cities grew and the ability of ecclesiastical institutions to serve them diminished. The perception of personal charity shifted from the idea of caritas to misericordia . Caritas , the term employed in the earlier Middle Ages, refers to

in Hospitals and charity
Its origins in religious drama

) response: ‘We seek the priest's old one-eyed whore.’ This fictional account of 1515 is illustrated with a woodcut representing the brawling participants at the performance's sorry climax. It confirms routine use of costumes and props, lay as well as clerical participants, and Latin text incomprehensible to the congregation. 20 When such Easter ceremonies were taken out of the context of their religious services, they became more independent of the liturgy. This facilitated the creative expansion of their treatment of the

in Enacting the Bible in medieval and early modern drama

Roman pontiff who, as the heir to the apostle Peter held the powers of binding and loosing on earth and in heaven, the Church offered a ‘universal’ religious belief structure, a code of practice, as well as a social framework for the whole of society. Paradoxically, the Latin Church was itself to be transformed and defined in its attempts to consolidate its hold over the different peoples of western Europe. Doctrine and belief In medieval society, the Church fulfilled any number of religious and social roles. Inextricably intertwined, these functions reinforced

in Reform and papacy in the eleventh century