This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.
with the authorities was a familiar requirement in many areas of life,
including religion. Alongside the registration of religious associations
from 1997 onwards, a process of the re-registration of all ‘public associations’ was required by 1 July 1999, under the terms of the 1995 Law On
Public Associations.33 Although only introduced in 1995, this law has
been superseded by at least two other important pieces of legislation since
then, as well as sharing common elements with the 1997 law on religion.
When it was drawn up, the Law On Public
Catholic human rights discourse in Northern Ireland in the 1980s
rights to life and worthy standard of living, including rights to proper
development of life and to basic security (§11).
• The rights of cultural and moral values, including freedom to search for
and express opinions, freedom of information, and right to education
• Rights to religion and conscience (§14).
• Rights to choose one’s state in life, including rights to establish a family
and pursue a religious vocation (§15–16).
• Economic rights, including right to work, to a just and sufficient wage,
and to hold private property (§18–22).
describes a utopia beyond human life, and reaches past human messiness towards it. In the return to Eden, for example,
we see a relinquishment of humanity to a higher good: either a religious
good or a rational scheme as suggested by Enlightenment thinkers. Charles
Fourier, for example, advocated a utopia that allows us to plug into a higher
rationality which will create an order that overcomes human frailty. Having
relinquished the wickedness of our ways, we become subject to a universal
order (Fourier, 1971).
The controlling or radically rationalist utopian idealises
all conflict in Africa is tribal or that “tribal conflicts are fragmenting
Africa’s nations” with the unspoken acceptance that identity-related
violence is simply a way of life.2 “It is Africa, after all,” so goes the
common refrain. This dismissive and simpleminded view not only
ignores the complex nature of African conflict, but excuses the political
African security in the twenty-first century
and economic culpability critical to fueling and sustaining the problem
of ethnic, racial, religious, sectarian, or communal violence across the
widely, presenting the processes by which such diverse elements of
life as religious belief, football hooliganism, and offences against national
dignity have all been the subject of moves – some successful, some less so
– to make them matters of urgent national security concern.
Chapter 6 deals with the topic of migration. In Russia, as in many
other states, the impact of immigrants on national life has been a sharply
debated political issue. On the one hand, Russia more than most countries
appears to be in urgent need of more people, given its dire demographic
religion in Turkey, what has been achieved in this field, and the almost religious zeal – “secular fundamentalism” – in which secularism has been applied in the country:
The proclamation of the Republic in 1923 was followed by the abolition of the office of the caliphate in 1924. Other steps were taken in the course of the 1920s and early 1930s towards secularizing the Republic. These included the abolition of the Ministry of Religious Affairs and Pious Foundations, abolition of religious courts, proscription of male religious headgear, namely the
them religious men, made explicit references to the idea that a
replacement for dwindling religious feeling needed to be found in public life:
for Chamberlain, ‘the cult of duty, self-sacrifice and service to the community, nation or empire, became increasingly the antidote for waning religious
belief and growing materialism’ (Fraser, 1966: xv). They described a quasireligious idea of a state project or mission which would elevate and ennoble
the British state.
This chapter develops a theoretical underpinning of the reconnection of
the state to a source of good. It
that they worshipped Shiva or his prototype. Mother-goddess worship was an
important element in the religiouslife of Harappan civilization. Historians had
earlier believed that the Aryan invaders destroyed this civilization, however, it is
now thought that a series of floods and earthquakes destroyed it.
A brief history of India up to independence
The first wave of Aryan immigration into India began around 1500 BC. The
Aryans lived in tribal villages with their herds and were not as civilized as the
people of the Indus Valley. But they were
at Marcia in Bulgaria in 1371 that ‘opened the way to the overall
Ottoman conquest of the Balkans’.22
Nonetheless, the Battle of Kosovo also serves to demonstrate how a
tragic Serbian narrative emerged, tainted with religious meaning. The story,
according to Serb historians, traces the life and downfall of an individual as
a tragedy. The tragedy acts as a vehicle with the Serbian protagonist representing the Prince as a man capable of superhuman acts of generosity and
nobility, who suffered, was betrayed by Vuk Brankovic, and who was ultimately sacrificed at Kosovo