Passing beneath these arches mounted with images of Wilhelmina, the governor-general may well have perceived more acutely than usual that he was the queen's ‘underking’.
Celebrations for the Dutch monarchy were great occasions for governors-general. Both official palaces on Java – one on the Koningsplein at Rijswijk in Batavia, the other at the hill station in Buitenzorg to the south of the capital – held life-sized, painted state portraits of the queen on permanent display. The portrait at Buitenzorg hung in the
Photographic encounters between Dutch and Indonesian royals
exhibitions of gifts from Indies kings and princes functioned as spectacular displays of magisterial authority, rather than princely power of the kind represented in curiosity cabinets or mercantile wealth flaunted in still life paintings. In the modern Netherlands, public showings of precious diplomatic gifts from its colonies gave novel form and meaning to older visual discourses of Dutch power.
An example of the Dutch monarchy's role in promoting these connections occurred in early 1937, soon after the wedding of Crown Princess Juliana. The pusaka
representations of the monarch's body – here, that of a European, female king – to explain how photography mediated Wilhelmina's relationship to her subjects. Official portraits and postcards of the queen throughout her life reveal how her racial identification with her Dutch subjects was inscribed on her body. In the 1890s, while still a princess, Wilhelmina became the first Dutch royal to publicly wear the folk costumes ( klederdracht ) of regional Dutch women. By the 1920s and 1930s klederdracht had become a regular feature of pageants at royal festivals in the Netherlands
about the creative spirit and peaceful proclivities of the Balinese that had been popular since the ‘discovery’ of the island by Western artists and tourists in the 1920s.
He contended that the Balinese resented the Japanese for banning religious festivals and wayang performances, whereas the Dutch took care to restore those aspects of Balinese life that had always been nurtured under colonial rule. Traditional Balinese modes of celebration were encouraged on Queen's Day in 1946, for instance: ‘The festival went
Mass photography, monarchy and the making of colonial subjects
communications, forged a cosmopolitan or ‘transnational’ sense of community in elite colonial circles.
A rising number of middle-class Europeans as well as a minority of wealthy, Indigenous Indonesians were able to participate in what Dutch historian Ulbe Bosma has referred to as a ‘colonial migration circuit’.
A similar situation has been described for other multi-ethnic, multi-religious European empires in this period.
The Dutch colonial world during Queen Wilhelmina’s reign,
However, Wilhelmina was the first monarch whose public birthday and inauguration celebrations became a regular fixture, aimed at unifying Dutch subjects under a common figurehead.
These practices commenced in the 1880s, in Wilhelmina's youth, as the fortunes of the House of Orange appeared to be in decline, and in the context of widening political and religious rifts in Dutch society.
Wilhelmina was born into a late nineteenth-century Netherlands where mass political participation manifested as
The Recruiting Party at first glance strikes a merry note, but
was intended to convey a sober reflection upon the danger to civilians
in contact with soldiers. The most obvious menace comes from the
recruiting party itself. The methods of recruiting sergeants were
notoriously corrupt and designed to ensnare young men ignorant of the
realities of life into the Army. One of the most familiar was for the victims
kind of publicity made her a
celebrity and her work the focus of the exhibition. Over a quarter of a
million photographs of her were sold in a week, and the press speculated
on her private life. 8
The Queen regarded the army in the Crimea as her own, and was anxious to
emphasise her nominal position as its head. In the aftermath of the war,
she had instituted the Victoria Cross and had personally
uniquely continuous documentation – the annual
exhibitions, which occurred without interruption throughout the period, were
always accompanied by a catalogue which detailed the artist, his/her
location and the title of the picture. Secondly, the RA, for almost the
whole period, was regarded as the foremost venue for the exhibition of
paintings, and thus occupied an important place in the social life of the
metropolis. It is
female sexuality saw an unbridgeable gulf between the ‘honest
woman’ and the whore. Since the financial imperative of
prostitution for women on low wages was often discounted, commentators
chose to believe that women ‘fell’ into the life only after
being seduced. The profile of the typical prostitute constructed by
contemporary authorities was a ‘virtuous’ serving maid or
farm girl led from the path of