Portuguese national space, where political borders have remained
substantially unchanged since the late Middle Ages, and where the
attainment of early statehood, and the absence of conflicts with
neighbouring countries and of ethno-linguistic minorities favoured the
model of the homogenous nation (Martins, 1971 ).
Mapping the countryside in European ‘films of
The tradition of
and social domains through such
economic indicators as occupation, income and ownership as well as through
their relationship to the modes of production. As will be demonstrated
below, however, the concept of class in Korean society depends on not only
the economic system, but also on the cultural legacies of the Confucian
occupational order from the traditional period.
In cultural criticism, a widely cited Marxist definition
in one film in particular: Anatomy of a
Murder. Distance is also a crucial factor to consider when we contemplate media as media of communication as well as media of expression.
Most media alter how we perceive and traverse distances, both spatial
and temporal, alterations which have cultural and social implications.
My exploration of this topic is interwoven with my exploration of The
Man Who Shot Liberty Valance. These two main parts of the chapter are
bracketed by more general discussions of matters of distance in relation
to the medium of film – principally
(especially Paramount) cultivated this cycle with a view toward
exploiting its public relations utility. By transforming the erstwhile
materials of dime novels into ‘authentic’ documents of
national culture, the studios sought to legitimise their market
dominance and burgeoning social power. As such, I argue that these films
should be reconceptualised as key commodities of the heritage
Generic hybridity and gender crisis in British horror of the new millennium
Bedlam (1994) as ‘falling somewhere between The Silence of
the Lambs and Flatliners;’5 Proteus (1995) as ‘Alien meets The Thing’6
and Darklands (1996) as ‘a cross between Rosemary’s Baby and The
Wicker Man.’7 By the 1990s, it seems, the British horror film was
little more than a self-reflexive exercise in pastiche; most often of
earlier American texts and their attendant ideologies.
Having been legislatively recognised as potentially offering a
potent challenge to the prescriptively normative and intrinsically
hegemonic formulation of British social and cultural life
itineraries of frenchness
itineraries which lead in diﬀerent directions (including potentially
back from where he came), routes symbolically or mentally barred.
At the same time, the ‘silence’, solitude and ‘desert’ of these seven
minutes contrast dramatically with the tense, fast-moving, moneydetermined, aggressive social and spatial relations that prevail in the
city, defamiliarising them, suggesting that the characters’ emotional
as well as physical itineraries will not end here.
The next signiﬁcant journey in the ﬁlm is to Spain, where Alice
accompanies Martin to
l’époque et sur un personnage qui me plaît bien, parce que c’est
un personnage qui était en avance sur son temps et qui n’a pas eu la force ni la volonté ni
la possibilité d’accomplir les
choses dont il rêvait. […] Je trouve que c’est un personnage prodigieusement moderne. 1
This statement highlights the way Tavernier blends
emotion with irony and even social critique. It also conveys his understanding of history as a
laborious and disjointed stumbling toward modernity.
Sociologists use the term