14 Domesticating 1916: the evolution of Amangeldi Imanov and the creation of a foundation myth for the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (1916–1939) Danielle Ross Introduction The year 1936 marked the twenty-year anniversary of the Central Asian uprising, a series of revolts sparked by the Russian Imperial government’s effort to mobilise men from the steppe provinces and Turkestan to perform labour duties during the First World War. In commemoration of the revolt, Kazakh writers, ethnographers and historians published historical studies and works of historical
The 1916 revolt was a key event in the history of Central Asia, and of the Russian Empire in the First World War. This volume is the first comprehensive reassessment of its causes, course and consequences in English for over sixty years. It draws together a new generation of leading historians from North America, Japan, Europe, Russia and Central Asia, working with Russian archival sources, oral narratives, poetry and song in Kazakh and Kyrgyz. These illuminate in unprecedented detail the origins and causes of the revolt, and the immense human suffering which it entailed. They also situate the revolt in a global perspective as part of a chain of rebellions and disturbances that shook the world’s empires, as they crumbled under the pressures of total war.
3 The 1916 uprisings in Jizzakh: economic background and political rationales Akmal Bazarbaev and Cloé Drieu Introduction Andrei Shestakov, one of the main historians and ideologues who produced articles and in the 1930s published a collection of archival documents on the 1916 revolt in Jizzakh, wrote that: the events (sobytiia) that occurred in the second half of the year 1916, when the Russian empire was collapsing on different fronts of the war, have to be considered without, any doubt, as one of the key moments that paved the ground for the revolution of
of 1916 and later served as the opening story of The Backwash of War . While the Atlantic Monthly had begun publishing stories and articles under a separate section titled “The Great War” in February 1916, and in August 1916 published five pieces clustered under that heading, “Heroes” was wedged between “The Odyssey of the Sockeye Salmon” and “A Federal Merchant Marine” in the main body of the issue, suggesting that the editors did not perceive this short piece of fiction as meshing with the non-fiction pieces
and contracted in the years after the Easter Rising. Boys often joined the Fianna when they or their families wanted to take a strong stance against British policies in Ireland, but then drifted away either when the immediate threat receded or when involvement in the youth group was viewed as too dangerous. Garry Holohan, a Dublin-based Fianna officer, noticed ‘a tremendous change’ in the advanced nationalist movement before and after the 1916 Rising. ‘The movement changed from a small party of idealists, who were ready to do and die in
1 Why in Central Asia, why in 1916? The revolt as an interface of the Russian colonial crisis and the World War Tomohiko Uyama While a large number of researchers have studied the revolt of 1916 in Central Asia, they have not provided sufficient answers to two fundamental questions. Why did the uprisings take place almost exclusively in Central Asia, while the edict to mobilise labourers was issued also to indigenous peoples (inorodtsy) of other parts of the Russian Empire, namely Siberia, the Caucasus and Kalmykia? Why did it occur in the year of 1916, although
with her when it was over. 4 She later placidly wrote to Stein that she spent her days doing “nothing” but they filled up all the same, representing her wartime experiences at that point as routine. 5 While critics have taken Stein’s assessment of La Motte as “gun shy” 6 at face value, 7 La Motte’s postcard to her mother from her third trip in May 1916 to Borden Turner’s hospital remarks, “here I am back again, but this time the work is not hard, the weather is lovely, and I like it better!” 8 In the spring of 1916, the
11 Futurist performance, 1910–1916 Günter Berghaus Futurist performance Introduction In 1983, I was asked to contribute an essay to a Festschrift honouring the achievements of my colleague William Edward Yuill. I considered writing something on Dada performance (Bill, whom I directed on several occasions, could be a Dada actor in more than one respect!) and threw myself with gusto into the documents related to the Cabaret Voltaire. When I discovered that both Hugo Ball and Tristan Tzara had conducted a correspondence with the Italian Futurists, it seemed
three primary conflicts in Ireland from 1916 to 1923: the Easter Rising (April 1916), Irish War of Independence (January 1919–July 1921) and Irish Civil War (June 1922–May 1923). As part of their wartime duties within the RAMC, a contingent of Irish doctors tended to those wounded in the Easter Rising, including members of the British Army and separatist Irish nationalists. Ex
Military Service Tribunals were formed following the introduction of conscription in January 1916, to consider applications for exemption from men deemed by the new legislation to have enlisted. Swiftly, they gained two opposing yet equally unflattering reputations. In the eyes of the military, they were soft, obstructionist ‘old duffers’. To most of the men who came before them, the Tribunals were the unfeeling civilian arm of a remorseless grinding machine. This book, utilizing a rare surviving set of Tribunal records, challenges both perspectives. The Tribunals were charged with balancing the needs of the army with those of the localities from which their members were drawn; they received instructions, recommendations and polite guidance from their masters at Whitehall, yet each was in effect a sovereign body whose decisions could not be overturned other than by appeal to similar bodies. Wielding unprecedented power yet acutely sensitive to the contradictions inherent in their task, they were obliged, often at a conveyer belt's pace, to make decisions that often determined the fate of men, their families, and ultimately, their communities. That some of these decisions were capricious or even wrong is indisputable; the sparse historiography of the Tribunals has too often focused upon the idiosyncratic example while ignoring the wider, adverse impact of imprecise legislation, government hand-washing and short-term military exigencies. Evaluating in depth that impact, and illuminating the social dynamics which often marked proceedings in the Tribunal chamber, this study attempts to redress the balance of an enduringly damning historical judgment.