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Hannah Mawdsley

War, including the United Kingdom. The origins of the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918–19 remain shrouded in mystery. Some of the first known cases were reported in Kansas, United States, but debates over its geographical origin vary between the United States, China and the battlefields in France and Belgium. 2 Cases in Kansas were reported in March 1918, but John Oxford has identified potential cases on the Western Front as early as 1916. 3 Wherever

in Exiting war
Influenza, war and revolution in Ireland, 1918–19
Author: Ida Milne

Ireland offers a particularly interesting canvas to study the social and political effects of the 1918–19 influenza pandemic, which is the largest the world has ever known. The influenza inserted itself into every running theme in Irish society, from the over-burdened and disjointed medical system, to the growing discontent with British rule, and the difficulties imposed by World War I. The influenza pandemic was contemporaneous with the so-called German plot, where anti-conscription campaigners had been interned on a trumped up charge by the government. Two of the internees would die from the disease, even as nationalists warned of the dangers of being imprisoned at this time. This work also draws on oral histories with survivors who spoke of this disease they suffered as children at the end of their lives. It tells how doctors had their new confidence in bacteriology challenged as it failed to provide answers to cure patients. It tells too of the families who suffered loss, and often changing financial circumstances when parents died. Life, for some, was never the same, whether through continued ill health or loss of loved ones.

Open Access (free)
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

refugee subject as the ARC had done during the war. As important a contribution for imagining and responding to refugees these pictures could have been, impact was ultimately muted because as a result of social and political changes within the ARC and America, the refugee would eventually become visually displaced through a desire and act of focusing on other humanitarian figures. Making Appearances: 1918–19 When hostilities came an end, so too did the ARC’s program of wartime relief. The agency, however, was not quick to quit Europe. The sense of duty that had

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
Andrew Williams

complete. The twentieth century has also seen a voluminous literature reflecting on peace and war, which has been constantly drawn upon by leaders to feed their imaginations and whose hopes and aspirations they hoped to fulfil. Hence H.G. Wells or Norman Angell are as much to be acknowledged as creators of the new world order imaginings of 1918–19 (and their subsequent defeat) as Woodrow Wilson. Equally, it is not only literary individuals that have shaped background sentiment upon which leaders have drawn, it is also ideas developed by ‘schools’ of commentators and

in Failed imagination?
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The First Aid Nursing Yeomanry in the First World War
Author: Janet Lee

Total war tends to create a situation that falls back on established social and cultural discourses and institutional arrangements at the same time that it provides the opportunity for a shifting and renegotiation of these arrangements. This book explores how the First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (FANY) drew upon, and/or subverted cultural mythologies to make sense of their wartime service. It focuses on this renegotiation of gender and examines seven key themes implicit in this process. The first theme concerns the ways women's military organizations utilized traditional notions of genteel femininity and its accompanying nurturance, cheerfulness and devotion in their promise of service, yet went beyond the parameters of such cultural mythologies. The second focuses on the gendering of military heroism. The third theme addresses the context of female military service in terms of the preparation women received, the opportunities they were given and the risks they took, and focuses on their coping behaviours. Theme four focuses specifically on women's transgression into the masculine terrain of driving and mechanics and shares the ways they developed skills and competencies previously off-limits for women. Such transgressions almost invariably led to women having to negotiate masculine authority and develop skills in autonomy, independence and assertiveness - the focus of theme five. The last two themes discussed in the book address the integration and consolidation of women's organizations as the war progressed and their service became indispensable.

Ida Milne

America and many European countries.4 This International List of Causes of Death (ICD) was to become a major tool in the compilation of statistics on the 1918–​19 influenza pandemic in these islands, as it had been adopted by the RGs of Ireland, England and Wales, and of Scotland, to classify certified deaths in their annual vital statistics reports. Standardising the classification of death was intended to enable more accurate international comparison of causes of death, but difficulties of definition remained for many years, and diseases would be reclassified in the

in Stacking the coffins
The impact of the First World War on the 1918–19 influenza pandemic in Ulster
Patricia Marsh

‘swine flu’ outbreak in 2009, numerous sensational articles about this disease appeared in Irish newspapers, 53 which created concern and panic among some of the population about a pandemic that did not occur. In fact, it has been suggested that the virulence of the 1918–19 pandemic is used as an example to cause alarm when reporting current virus

in Medicine, health and Irish experiences of conflict 1914–45
Ida Milne

War); and popular interest as world health authorities warned that a new pandemic of influenza was overdue. Pandemics are understood to run at intervals of roughly thirty years, and the last one had been in 1968, in a world recently threatened with the possible escalation of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and H5N1 avian influenza into significant epidemics. This popular interest surged in 2009, as a new strain of influenza caused an epidemic with alarming morbidity and mortality in Mexico, which some thought comparable with the 1918–​19 pandemic. The

in Stacking the coffins
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The long aftermath
Ida Milne

to the contemporary crisis for the Irish Daily Mail. It is not often that a PhD student is asked to write for a tabloid newspaper, but high-​profile television documentaries about the 1918–​19 pandemic on history channels had primed the public to believe that another major influenza pandemic was overdue. The panic surrounding the Mexican outbreak was eerily similar to what I  was uncovering about the other ‘Hispanic’ influenza. In June 1918 –​within days of the reporting of an unusually severe outbreak of influenza in Spain –​the flu had arrived in Ireland

in Stacking the coffins
Transnational resistance in Europe, 1936–48
Editors: Robert Gildea and Ismee Tames

This work demonstrates that resistance to occupation by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy during the Second World War has to be seen through a transnational, not a national, lens. It explores how people often resisted outside their country of origin because they were migrants, refugees or exiles who were already on the move. It traces their trajectories and encounters with other resisters and explores their experiences, including changes of beliefs, practices and identities. The book is a powerful, subtle and thought-provoking alternative to works on the Second World War that focus on single countries or on grand strategy. It is a ‘bottom up’ story of extraordinary individuals and groups who resisted oppression from Spain to the Soviet Union and the Balkans. It challenges the standard chronology of the war, beginning with the formation of the International Brigades in Spain and following through to the onset of the Cold War and the foundation of the state of Israel. This is a collective project by a team of international historians led by Robert Gildea, author of Fighters in the Shadows: A New History of the French Resistance (Faber & Faber, 2015). These have explored archives across Europe, the USA, Russia and Israel in order to unearth scores of fascinating individual stories which are woven together into themed chapters and a powerful new interpretation. The book is aimed at undergraduates and graduates working on twentieth-century Europe and the Second World War or interested in the possibilities of transnational history.