3 The accession pedagogy Enlargement from soft power to pedagogy When the Turkish foreign minister revealed his government’s desire to apply for membership of the European Economic Community on 14 April 1987 with letters hand-delivered to the Belgian foreign minister and president of the Community and to the president of European Commission, no one in his cabinet anticipated the post-1989 reterritorialisation in Europe (Keskin 2001). A little over a year earlier, in 1986, the Community had enlarged for the third time with the ac­ cessions of Spain and Portugal

in Diplomacy and lobbying during Turkey’s Europeanisation

MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 08/13/2013, SPi 2 The evolution of the accession and coronation oaths The oaths of the accession and of the coronation of the monarch are the central affirmative symbolic acts which legitimate the system of government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK) and the place of the monarchy at the apex of the political system. Yet, apart from Morris (2009) who examines current issues in church–state relations but does not go into great detail on this specific matter, they have received remarkably little public

in Monarchy, religion and the state

3 Child protection in Romania and European Union accession Romania in a way suffered a lot because of this ‘black sheep’ label because of the children’s situation, but in a way, Romania received so much financial support and assistance that now Romania is a model of how it has transformed and reformed its child protection. (Commission official) Introduction European Union (EU) leverage over the reform of child protection in Romania was unprecedented within the context of Eastern enlargement. The Romanian children’s case, including the issue of international

in Children’s rights, Eastern enlargement and the EU human rights regime

2 European Union accession conditionality and human rights in Romania The Commission has no competence to monitor prisons in the Member States and then it starts becoming difficult if you start monitoring things externally for which you don’t have an internal mandate. And I know that Member State X can say ‘well Commission, why are you looking so strenuously into those prison conditions in these candidate countries when we are not really sure you should?’ (Commission official) Introduction The end of the Cold War afforded the former communist states with the

in Children’s rights, Eastern enlargement and the EU human rights regime
The private life of politics

Turkey’s Europeanisation saga, which began in 1959 and climaxed in 2005 with the opening of membership negotiations with the European Union (EU), presents a unique opportunity to understand how interstate actors negotiate their interests; what ‘common interests’ look like from their historically and culturally contingent perspectives; and what happens when actors work for their private, professional, public, personal or institutional interests, even when those interests may go against their mandate. Honing in on the role of diplomats and lobbyists during negotiations for Turkey’s contentious EU membership bid, this book presents intricate, backstage conflicts of power and interests and negotiations of compromises, which drove this candidate country both closer to and farther from the EU. The reader will find in the book the everyday actors and agents of Turkish Europeanisation and learn what their work entails, which interests they represent and how they do what they do. Based on long-term ethnographic fieldwork in Brussels, the book argues that public, private and corporate actors, voicing economic, political and bureaucratic interests from all corners of Europe, sought access to markets and polities through the Turkish bid instead of pursuing their mandate of facilitating Turkey’s EU accession. Although limited progress was achieved in Turkey’s actual EU integration, diplomats and lobbyists from both sides of the negotiating table contradictorily affirmed their expertise as effective negotiators, seeking more status and power. This is the first book-length account of the EU–Turkey power-interest negotiations in situ, from the perspective of its long-term actors and agents.

Civil religion in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and the Commonwealth

This book introduces a discussion of a fundamental paradox concerning contemporary society and government in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK). There is strong evidence of continuing trends towards a more secular and less religious society and pattern of social behaviour. At the same time, religious doctrines, rituals and institutions are central to the legitimacy, stability and continuity of key elements of the constitutional and political system. Outlining the thesis of secularization, the book attempts to account for the failure of secularisation theory. The oaths of the accession and of the coronation of the monarch are the central affirmative symbolic acts which legitimate the system of government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK) and the place of the monarchy at the apex of the political system. The book explores some remote and dusty corners of the constitution of the UK that might be of some importance for the operation of the UK political system. The 1953 coronation ad many features of the 1937 coronation on which it was modelled. The religious rituals of the UK Parliament appear to be much more fixed and enduring than those devised in the context of devolution since 1999 to resolve tensions between the religious and political spheres in the 'Celtic' regions. A profound limitation of Anglican multifaithism as a doctrine for uniting the political community is its failure to connect with the large secular population.

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Europeanisation and accession

9780719055157_4_004.qxd 20/3/09 12:06 PM Page 65 4 Approaching Europe: Europeanisation and accession Introduction In this chapter we examine adaptation in British central government in the period up to and including accession. We utilise the analytical toolkits of Europeanisation and historical institutionalism as set out in Chapter 2 to focus our empirical detail. Was accession in 1973 the critical juncture in adapting to Europe? That at least would seem to be an initial presumption, since Chapter 3 revealed that European integration had already developed a

in The Europeanisation of Whitehall
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Unmet expectations

Introduction The Cyprus conflict 1 is another problematic case for Europeanisation. The evolution of the EU’s involvement in its resolution is at odds with the historical reconciliation hypothesis on European integration. Against the evidence of Cyprus’s EU accession in 2004 as a divided country and the lack of progress in conflict resolution at the post-accession stage, no

in The Europeanisation of conflict resolution
From Eastern enlargement to the Lisbon Treaty and beyond

interventionist human rights conditionality applied to the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs), as part of Eastern enlargement. The legal and constitutional changes introduced by the Lisbon Treaty, along with the binding nature of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, have further enhanced the EU’s internal and external human rights commitments. The acquis accession criteria focusing on human rights issues have become more entrenched and formalized, as the accession monitoring process of current candidate countries demonstrates. Despite this, the ‘lack of competence

in Children’s rights, Eastern enlargement and the EU human rights regime

3 The futility of EU funding Romania was allocated €6.5 billion of pre-accession funding by the EU between 1990 and 2005.1 Most of this assistance was meant to ensure that a process of economic and social modernisation was accelerated. This involved modernising the infrastructure of the country, neglected under Ceauşescu and left in disrepair afterwards. Assistance was also meant to ensure that Romania acquired a market economy based on free enterprise and private initiative. Overall, it was correctly assumed in Brussels that a large-scale absorption of aid was

in Romania and the European Union