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Victor Skretkowicz

self-expression and self-fulfilment, male self-interest, and the rewards of stoicism and self-discipline. Achilles Tatius takes his characters through a range of adventures as they move around the eastern Mediterranean. He focuses on how the lives of his hero and heroine are influenced by erotically driven men and women. Daphnis and Chloe gains strength by delicately drawing

in European erotic romance
Philhellene Protestantism, Renaissance translation and English literary politics

Relatively late manifestations of the European philhellene revival of Greco-Roman letters presented to readers complex, extended prose fiction in which the trials of love mask an implicit moral and political allegory. Inevitably, coming during the Reformation, Counter-Reformation and the Catholic Reformation, this cultural phenomenon was not without its religious and political dimensions. Longus, Achilles Tatius and Heliodorus were the three principal English exponents of rhetorically conscious Greco-Roman erotic romance. This book enhances the understanding of the erotic romances of Philip Sidney, Shakespeare, and Lady Mary Sidney Wroth by setting them within an integrated political, rhetorical, and aesthetic context. It investigates how Renaissance translators alter rhetorical styles, and even contents, to accord with contemporary taste, political agendas and the restrictions of censorship. Particular attention is paid to differences between the French courtly style of Jacques Amyot and François de Belleforest and the more literal translations of their English counterparts. Valuable perspective on the early translations is offered through the modern English versions in B.P. Reardon's Collected Ancient Greek Novels. The book considers the three texts of Sidney's Arcadia, as a political romance sharing many of the thematic and rhetorical concerns of the ancients. It focuses on a narrow range of Shakespeare's plays including Julius Caesar and Antony and Cleopatra. The book identifies Mary Sidney Wroth's masque-like prose allegory, The Countess of Montgomery's Urania, as philhellene Protestant political propaganda.

Abstract only
Victor Skretkowicz

the three by Longus, Achilles Tatius and Heliodorus received wide circulation during the Renaissance. Relatively late manifestations of the European philhellene (‘lovers of ancient Greece’) revival of Greco-Roman letters, they were published and translated during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. These works gave readers their first experience of the long-forgotten art of writing

in European erotic romance
Victor Skretkowicz

romances of arguably the most rhetorically sophisticated and politically aware authors of the age represent the ultimate English response to lengthy, complex and rhetorically artistic Greco-Roman prose fiction. The ancient romances available to Sidney, Shakespeare and Sidney Wroth were Longus’s Daphnis and Chloe (?AD 200), Achilles Tatius’s Leukippe and Kleitophon (late

in European erotic romance
Victor Skretkowicz

thirteenth-century manuscript in Florence that also contains a fragment of Achilles Tatius, plus full texts of Chariton and Xenophon of Ephesus. 37 That he then obliterated it with a blot of ink caused an international incident. The passage first appeared in his 1810 edition. Translating Erotic Romance The earliest English

in European erotic romance
Victor Skretkowicz

Political outlines The preceding chapters demonstrate how, during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the erotic romances of Longus, Achilles Tatius and Heliodorus take on various political inflections. Editors and translators manifest the amalgam of their political, religious, moral and ethical leanings

in European erotic romance
Victor Skretkowicz

). The technique of opening the narrative with a lamenting speaker, who progresses into an enclosed sacred space containing symbolic iconography, is familiar from Longus and Achilles Tatius. But it is the painstaking description of movement and perspective, as in Heliodorus’s opening, filtered through Montemayor’s Diana , with which the action moves towards a voyeuristic

in European erotic romance
Victor Skretkowicz

chastity and keeping herself for me. For me! (2.4; Reardon, pp. 380–1) In their sincerity, Theagenes’ histrionics differ from Achilles Tatius’s brief parody of stage drama in Kleitophon’s outpouring of grief over Leukippe’s bier (3.16). Nonetheless, both romance heroes open with an exclamatory apostrophe, followed

in European erotic romance
Victor Skretkowicz

of the Romans. 92 Shakespeare achieves these distinctions by exploiting the artful styles invented for Renaissance adaptations of Greco-Roman historiography and erotic romance. His embellishments to the Amyot-North text emulate the stylistic high points of Achilles Tatius, Heliodorus and Sidney. North’s representation of Cleopatra’s barge is relatively reserved

in European erotic romance
The view through French spectacles
Richard Hillman

, the appearance of the goddess herself seems a natural invention, but it, too, carries intertextual baggage, and of a telling kind. The late Greek romance of Clitophon and Leucippe , by Achilles Tatius, whose protagonist is also from Tyre, contains many typical plot elements reminiscent of the Apollonius story, including a heroine supposed dead and sold by pirates. It concludes with a parallel reunion in Diana’s Ephesian temple, at once of the separated eponymous lovers and of Leucippe’s father, Sosthenes, with his lost daughter. In that case, Diana appears to

in The Shakespearean comic and tragicomic