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Kipling’s Edwardian summer
Daniel Karlin

8 Actions and Reactions: Kipling’s Edwardian summer Daniel Karlin R  udyard Kipling’s collection of stories and accompanying poems, Actionsand Reactions, was published in October 1909. It consisted of eight stories, each followed by a poem; the stories had all previously appeared in magazines in both the United States and Britain, with the exception of the first and last, which appeared in American magazines only. (The Addendum to Actions and Reactions, reproduced at the end of this chapter, gives the sequence of stories and poems in the published volume

in In Time’s eye
Abstract only
Essays on Rudyard Kipling
Editor: Jan Montefiore

This book is a collection of essays on Rudyard Kipling and brings historical, literary critical and postcolonial approaches to this perennially controversial writer. The first and fairest thing to say about Kipling is that he has borne a brilliant part in recovering the lost provinces of poetry. Kipling's morality is the morality of someone who has to prove that God is not responsible for part of the world, and that the Devil is. Kipling's imperialist opinions became more strident after the Boer War he lost the esteem of British literary intellectuals, whom he in turn despised. The book addresses Kipling's approach to the Boer war, his involvement with World War One, his Englishness and the politics of literary quotation. It demonstrates the effects of a Kipling-conditioned world on Edward Thomas, Ivor Gurney and David Jones. The book focuses on Kipling's collection of stories and accompanying poems, Actions and Reactions, which was published in October 1909. It also probes the historical subtext of the children's fable Rikki-Tikki-Tavi and Indian history, Kipling's search for God, and his longest Indian experience of footloose travel in the Native states of North India. Stalky & Co is the text of Kipling's which features the largest number of quotations. Kipling's notion of the ideally masculine 'army man' in relation to contemporary late Victorian discourses and practices of same-sex passion is analyzed. The book also addresses Kipling's views on the question of fascism, anti-Semitism and the 'doctrine of racial superiority'.

Open Access (free)
A social representation of scientific expertise
Warren Pearce and Brigitte Nerlich

truth imparted by climate-science experts, its effect was to become a lightning rod for disagreeing with, criticising and debating with that expertise. Overall, AIT created a dominant representation of climate change, based on expertise that became a touchstone for consent and dissent, action and reaction. This position was enhanced by the joint award of the 2007 Nobel Peace prize to Gore and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In the following we shall first provide some background to the film’s emergence, highlighting its echoes of Dewey’s argument

in Science and the politics of openness
Mary Pierse

10 Women, fictional messages and a crucial decade Mary Pierse During the traumatic period of strife in Northern Ireland, Irish poets and artists were frequently exhorted to make their art relevant, to comment or perhaps to take sides. Despite the marked lack of public clamour for artistic involvement in cogitation, diagnosis or prescription regarding two decades of rollercoaster-­ride from embryonic prosperity to economic austerity, much recent fiction by notable Irish women novelists has determinedly featured numerous depictions of experiences, actions and

in From prosperity to austerity
Sarah Holland

absence of personal testimonies, patients ‘narrated’ and ‘navigated’ their experiences through their actions and reactions. Patient records, particularly case notes, can provide valuable insights into the treatment and experiences of patients. 1 Maintaining casebooks became mandatory after the 1845 Lunacy Act, although some institutions already kept detailed case notes before this date. The notes performed medical, bureaucratic and legal roles, and entries became increasingly detailed. 2

in Patient voices in Britain, 1840–1948

Screening the Hollywood Rebels in 1950s Britain explores the relationship between classic American films about juvenile delinquency and British popular youth culture in the mid-twentieth century. The book examines the censorship, publicity and fandom surrounding such Hollywood films as The Wild One, Blackboard Jungle, Rebel Without a Cause, Rock Around the Clock and Jailhouse Rock alongside such British films as The Blue Lamp, Spare the Rod and Serious Charge. Intersecting with star studies and social and cultural history, this is the first book to re-vision the stardom surrounding three extraordinarily influential Hollywood stars: Marlon Brando, James Dean and Elvis Presley. By looking specifically at the meanings of these American stars to British fans, this analysis provides a logical and sustained narrative that explains how and why these Hollywood images fed into, and disrupted, British cultural life. Screening the Hollywood Rebels in 1950s Britain is based upon a wide range of sources including censorship records, both mainstream and trade newspapers and periodicals, archival accounts and memoirs, as well as the films themselves. The book is a timely intervention of film culture and focuses on key questions about screen violence and censorship, masculinity and transnational stardom, method acting and performance, Americanisation and popular post-war British culture. The book is essential reading for researchers, academics and students of film and social and cultural history, alongside general readers interested in the links between the media and popular youth culture in the 1950s.

Janel B. Galvanek and Hans J. Giessmann

rather determined by different priorities and objectives. And last but not least, the perception of Everyday resistance and conflict transformation 161 everyday resistance is a matter of subjective assessment and is attributed to relational behaviour. Resistance is reactive. But any reaction may then become the reason for a counter-reaction (or ‘counter-resistance’) and so forth. Perspectives on actions and reactions become fuzzy if socially constructed and subjective assumptions about causes and drivers of behaviour come into play. While interventions by some

in Cultures of governance and peace
Abstract only
Jan Montefiore

modernist literature produced between 1900 and 1930 and the binary opposition ‘modernist/realist’, preferring to read both Victorian and twentieth-century texts as ‘cultural formations’ inflected by spe­ cific socio-historical conditions,24 so Kipling’s work looks less solidly Victorian and more like ‘cross-over’ writing. Kipling’s connections with modernist liter­ ature appear here both in Daniel Karlin’s reading of the interlinked short stories of Actions and Reactions as an ambivalent celebration of an English­ ness associated with ‘different forms of inauthenticity

in In Time’s eye
Transnational resistance in Europe, 1936–48
Editors: Robert Gildea and Ismee Tames

This work demonstrates that resistance to occupation by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy during the Second World War has to be seen through a transnational, not a national, lens. It explores how people often resisted outside their country of origin because they were migrants, refugees or exiles who were already on the move. It traces their trajectories and encounters with other resisters and explores their experiences, including changes of beliefs, practices and identities. The book is a powerful, subtle and thought-provoking alternative to works on the Second World War that focus on single countries or on grand strategy. It is a ‘bottom up’ story of extraordinary individuals and groups who resisted oppression from Spain to the Soviet Union and the Balkans. It challenges the standard chronology of the war, beginning with the formation of the International Brigades in Spain and following through to the onset of the Cold War and the foundation of the state of Israel. This is a collective project by a team of international historians led by Robert Gildea, author of Fighters in the Shadows: A New History of the French Resistance (Faber & Faber, 2015). These have explored archives across Europe, the USA, Russia and Israel in order to unearth scores of fascinating individual stories which are woven together into themed chapters and a powerful new interpretation. The book is aimed at undergraduates and graduates working on twentieth-century Europe and the Second World War or interested in the possibilities of transnational history.

Kipling among the war poets
Harry Ricketts

in Gray’ (1918), sounds more Kipling than Kipling: Wherefore, O free-born Peoples – Though it last for a year and a day – This let us vow in the name of our God: ‘No truce with the Beasts in Gray!’21 But the ‘conditioning’ also manifests itself in less obvious ways, notably in an ambivalence of attitude which pervades the outlook and output of the war poets. An illuminating example of such an ambivalence is Edward Thomas. On the one hand, he clearly disliked Kipling’s work. Reviewing Actions and Reactions in 1909, he strongly implied his own antipathy while

in In Time’s eye