Kipling’s Edwardian summer
udyard Kipling’s collection of stories and accompanying poems, ActionsandReactions, was published in October 1909. It consisted of eight
stories, each followed by a poem; the stories had all previously appeared in
magazines in both the United States and Britain, with the exception of the
first and last, which appeared in American magazines only. (The Addendum
to ActionsandReactions, reproduced at the end of this chapter, gives the
sequence of stories and poems in the published volume
This book is a collection of essays on Rudyard Kipling and brings historical, literary critical and postcolonial approaches to this perennially controversial writer. The first and fairest thing to say about Kipling is that he has borne a brilliant part in recovering the lost provinces of poetry. Kipling's morality is the morality of someone who has to prove that God is not responsible for part of the world, and that the Devil is. Kipling's imperialist opinions became more strident after the Boer War he lost the esteem of British literary intellectuals, whom he in turn despised. The book addresses Kipling's approach to the Boer war, his involvement with World War One, his Englishness and the politics of literary quotation. It demonstrates the effects of a Kipling-conditioned world on Edward Thomas, Ivor Gurney and David Jones. The book focuses on Kipling's collection of stories and accompanying poems, Actions and Reactions, which was published in October 1909. It also probes the historical subtext of the children's fable Rikki-Tikki-Tavi and Indian history, Kipling's search for God, and his longest Indian experience of footloose travel in the Native states of North India. Stalky & Co is the text of Kipling's which features the largest number of quotations. Kipling's notion of the ideally masculine 'army man' in relation to contemporary late Victorian discourses and practices of same-sex passion is analyzed. The book also addresses Kipling's views on the question of fascism, anti-Semitism and the 'doctrine of racial superiority'.
truth imparted by climate-science experts,
its effect was to become a lightning rod for disagreeing with, criticising
and debating with that expertise. Overall, AIT created a dominant
representation of climate change, based on expertise that became a
touchstone for consent and dissent, actionandreaction. This position
was enhanced by the joint award of the 2007 Nobel Peace prize to
Gore and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
In the following we shall first provide some background to the
film’s emergence, highlighting its echoes of Dewey’s argument
Women, fictional messages and a crucial
During the traumatic period of strife in Northern Ireland, Irish poets and
artists were frequently exhorted to make their art relevant, to comment or
perhaps to take sides. Despite the marked lack of public clamour for artistic
involvement in cogitation, diagnosis or prescription regarding two decades
of rollercoaster-ride from embryonic prosperity to economic austerity,
much recent fiction by notable Irish women novelists has determinedly
featured numerous depictions of experiences, actionsand
absence of personal testimonies, patients ‘narrated’ and ‘navigated’ their experiences through their actionsandreactions. Patient records, particularly case notes, can provide valuable insights into the treatment and experiences of patients.
Maintaining casebooks became mandatory after the 1845 Lunacy Act, although some institutions already kept detailed case notes before this date. The notes performed medical, bureaucratic and legal roles, and entries became increasingly detailed.
Screening the Hollywood Rebels in 1950s Britain explores the relationship between classic American films about juvenile delinquency and British popular youth culture in the mid-twentieth century. The book examines the censorship, publicity and fandom surrounding such Hollywood films as The Wild One, Blackboard Jungle, Rebel Without a Cause, Rock Around the Clock and Jailhouse Rock alongside such British films as The Blue Lamp, Spare the Rod and Serious Charge. Intersecting with star studies and social and cultural history, this is the first book to re-vision the stardom surrounding three extraordinarily influential Hollywood stars: Marlon Brando, James Dean and Elvis Presley. By looking specifically at the meanings of these American stars to British fans, this analysis provides a logical and sustained narrative that explains how and why these Hollywood images fed into, and disrupted, British cultural life. Screening the Hollywood Rebels in 1950s Britain is based upon a wide range of sources including censorship records, both mainstream and trade newspapers and periodicals, archival accounts and memoirs, as well as the films themselves. The book is a timely intervention of film culture and focuses on key questions about screen violence and censorship, masculinity and transnational stardom, method acting and performance, Americanisation and popular post-war British culture. The book is essential reading for researchers, academics and students of film and social and cultural history, alongside general readers interested in the links between the media and popular youth culture in the 1950s.
rather determined by different priorities and objectives. And last but not least, the perception of
Everyday resistance and conflict transformation
everyday resistance is a matter of subjective assessment and is attributed
to relational behaviour. Resistance is reactive. But any reaction may
then become the reason for a counter-reaction (or ‘counter-resistance’)
and so forth. Perspectives on actionsandreactions become fuzzy if
socially constructed and subjective assumptions about causes and drivers
of behaviour come into play. While interventions by some
modernist literature produced between 1900 and
1930 and the binary opposition ‘modernist/realist’, preferring to read both
Victorian and twentieth-century texts as ‘cultural formations’ inflected by spe
cific socio-historical conditions,24 so Kipling’s work looks less solidly Victorian
and more like ‘cross-over’ writing. Kipling’s connections with modernist liter
ature appear here both in Daniel Karlin’s reading of the interlinked short
stories of ActionsandReactions as an ambivalent celebration of an English
ness associated with ‘different forms of inauthenticity
This work demonstrates that resistance to occupation by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy during the Second World War has to be seen through a transnational, not a national, lens. It explores how people often resisted outside their country of origin because they were migrants, refugees or exiles who were already on the move. It traces their trajectories and encounters with other resisters and explores their experiences, including changes of beliefs, practices and identities. The book is a powerful, subtle and thought-provoking alternative to works on the Second World War that focus on single countries or on grand strategy. It is a ‘bottom up’ story of extraordinary individuals and groups who resisted oppression from Spain to the Soviet Union and the Balkans. It challenges the standard chronology of the war, beginning with the formation of the International Brigades in Spain and following through to the onset of the Cold War and the foundation of the state of Israel. This is a collective project by a team of international historians led by Robert Gildea, author of Fighters in the Shadows: A New History of the French Resistance (Faber & Faber, 2015). These have explored archives across Europe, the USA, Russia and Israel in order to unearth scores of fascinating individual stories which are woven together into themed chapters and a powerful new interpretation. The book is aimed at undergraduates and graduates working on twentieth-century Europe and the Second World War or interested in the possibilities of transnational history.
in Gray’ (1918), sounds more Kipling
Wherefore, O free-born Peoples –
Though it last for a year and a day –
This let us vow in the name of our God:
‘No truce with the Beasts in Gray!’21
But the ‘conditioning’ also manifests itself in less obvious ways, notably in
an ambivalence of attitude which pervades the outlook and output of the
An illuminating example of such an ambivalence is Edward Thomas.
On the one hand, he clearly disliked Kipling’s work. Reviewing ActionsandReactions in 1909, he strongly implied his own antipathy while