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Christoph Knill
Duncan Liefferink

3 Central institutions and actors The previous overview of the historical development, policy orientations and governance patterns of EU environmental policy can only be understood and explained when we take a closer look at how this policy is actually made. What are the general institutional and procedural conditions for the design of European environmental policies? Who are the important actors? What are their respective responsibilities? What general interest constellations and patterns of interaction can be observed? Our starting point for answering these

in Environmental politics in the European Union
The executive drama
Ben Tonra

6 Policy actors and structures: the executive drama Introduction The objective of this chapter is to outline the central political and bureaucratic framework from which Irish foreign policy is constructed and to analyse the significance of its evolution. Traditionally, Irish foreign policy has been seen as a creature of government and thus of the ministers and the departmental officials directly concerned with the pursuit of foreign policy objectives.This chapter will argue that in so far as the executive remains at the centre of the foreign policy process in

in Global citizen and European Republic
Into the driving seat
Stephen Lacey

02-chap 01 26/2/07 10:12 am Page 11 From actor to producer: into the driving seat 1 On 15 June 1966, Sidney Newman, the Head of the Drama Group at the BBC, wrote a memo to Kenneth Adam, the Commissioner of Programmes, entitled ‘The Wednesday Play’. The memo, which Newman thought ‘short on fact and long on thought’ (Newman 1966b: 2), was an articulate defence of the anthology series (1964–70), with which he (and later Tony Garnett) had become closely identified. The memo is mainly about the need to attract – and keep – good writers committed to working in

in Tony Garnett
The democratic coda
Ben Tonra

7 Policy actors and structures: the democratic coda Introduction The aim of this chapter is to review the structures, both formal and informal, through which democratic control is exercised over the formulation and conduct of Irish foreign policy. It is evident from the previous chapter that in the 1980s and 1990s the winds of a gentle revolution were sweeping through the corridors of Iveagh House. Some of the resulting change in executive structures, roles and procedures could be seen to be a result of Ireland’s twenty-five-year engagement in Europe and an

in Global citizen and European Republic
Jon Birger Skjærseth
Tora Skodvin

2543Chap4 16/7/03 9:58 am Page 74 4 The Corporate Actor model The previous chapter demonstrated the striking differences in the climate strategies of ExxonMobil, the Shell Group and Statoil. While ExxonMobil has adopted a reactive strategy, Shell has chosen a proactive response, and Statoil has adopted a strategy representing a hybrid between these two positions. In this chapter we explore the explanatory power of the approach we have labelled the Corporate Actor (CA) model. To recapitulate our discussion from chapter 2, the CA model suggests that

in Climate change and the oil industry
Andrew Spicer

other Scot in the cinema has had the international impact, acclaim or staying power of this son of Edinburgh’. 5 According to Ross Wilson, who directed the 1994 documentary Sean Connery: A Profile , Connery was ‘not so much an actor as a Scots actor. And that attention to roots, the primitivism in him … gave James Bond his power.’  6 The tributes and obituaries that followed Connery's death often emphasised his Scottishness; Scotland's First Minister Nicola Sturgeon

in Sean Connery
Risks and opportunities for conflict transformation
Maéva Clément
Anna Geis
, and
Hanna Pfeifer

Introduction Internal wars are the prevalent contemporary type of violent conflict (Sarkees and Wayman 2010 ). Many violent conflicts involve armed non-state actors (ANSAs) such as insurgents, rebels, guerrillas, warlords, militias, paramilitaries and private security companies. In addition, the so-called ‘global war on terrorism’ indicates that transnational terrorist networks are considered to be one of the major security threats today. Whatever label is used for a certain armed actor by a government, official

in Armed non-state actors and the politics of recognition
Andrew Spicer

It wasn't until I decided to become an actor that I really began to make something of my life. 1 The conventional understanding of Connery's career is that he had virtually no training or experience as an actor before starring as James Bond. However, very little that Connery achieved in this early period, 1953

in Sean Connery
Abstract only
Mary Venner

Official reports on the UN Mission in Kosovo generally refer to UNMIK as the only significant actor in the territory during its post-conflict reconstruction. In the field of public administration development, however, several large and influential international organisations and bilateral donors in addition to the UN played leading roles. Although the majority of these actors

in Donors, technical assistance and public administration in Kosovo
What we have learned and what lies ahead
Harold Trinkunas

wants to do something to show we're not all wasting our time’ (BBC News 2020 ). The singular declaration of a US president of the transformation of the Taliban from recognition as a terrorist organisation to a potential counterinsurgent highlights the powerful effect that acts of recognition, mis-recognition and non-recognition of armed non-state actors (ANSAs) can have in the course of civil conflict. This is only one speech by a US leader in a long-lasting conflict, and it may not in the long run have an impact, but it was an unusually visible

in Armed non-state actors and the politics of recognition