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Christoph Knill and Duncan Liefferink

3 Central institutions and actors The previous overview of the historical development, policy orientations and governance patterns of EU environmental policy can only be understood and explained when we take a closer look at how this policy is actually made. What are the general institutional and procedural conditions for the design of European environmental policies? Who are the important actors? What are their respective responsibilities? What general interest constellations and patterns of interaction can be observed? Our starting point for answering these

in Environmental politics in the European Union
The executive drama
Ben Tonra

6 Policy actors and structures: the executive drama Introduction The objective of this chapter is to outline the central political and bureaucratic framework from which Irish foreign policy is constructed and to analyse the significance of its evolution. Traditionally, Irish foreign policy has been seen as a creature of government and thus of the ministers and the departmental officials directly concerned with the pursuit of foreign policy objectives.This chapter will argue that in so far as the executive remains at the centre of the foreign policy process in

in Global citizen and European Republic
Into the driving seat
Stephen Lacey

02-chap 01 26/2/07 10:12 am Page 11 From actor to producer: into the driving seat 1 On 15 June 1966, Sidney Newman, the Head of the Drama Group at the BBC, wrote a memo to Kenneth Adam, the Commissioner of Programmes, entitled ‘The Wednesday Play’. The memo, which Newman thought ‘short on fact and long on thought’ (Newman 1966b: 2), was an articulate defence of the anthology series (1964–70), with which he (and later Tony Garnett) had become closely identified. The memo is mainly about the need to attract – and keep – good writers committed to working in

in Tony Garnett
The democratic coda
Ben Tonra

7 Policy actors and structures: the democratic coda Introduction The aim of this chapter is to review the structures, both formal and informal, through which democratic control is exercised over the formulation and conduct of Irish foreign policy. It is evident from the previous chapter that in the 1980s and 1990s the winds of a gentle revolution were sweeping through the corridors of Iveagh House. Some of the resulting change in executive structures, roles and procedures could be seen to be a result of Ireland’s twenty-five-year engagement in Europe and an

in Global citizen and European Republic
Jon Birger Skjærseth and Tora Skodvin

2543Chap4 16/7/03 9:58 am Page 74 4 The Corporate Actor model The previous chapter demonstrated the striking differences in the climate strategies of ExxonMobil, the Shell Group and Statoil. While ExxonMobil has adopted a reactive strategy, Shell has chosen a proactive response, and Statoil has adopted a strategy representing a hybrid between these two positions. In this chapter we explore the explanatory power of the approach we have labelled the Corporate Actor (CA) model. To recapitulate our discussion from chapter 2, the CA model suggests that

in Climate change and the oil industry
Risks and opportunities for conflict transformation
Maéva Clément, Anna Geis, and Hanna Pfeifer

Introduction Internal wars are the prevalent contemporary type of violent conflict (Sarkees and Wayman 2010 ). Many violent conflicts involve armed non-state actors (ANSAs) such as insurgents, rebels, guerrillas, warlords, militias, paramilitaries and private security companies. In addition, the so-called ‘global war on terrorism’ indicates that transnational terrorist networks are considered to be one of the major security threats today. Whatever label is used for a certain armed actor by a government, official

in Armed non-state actors and the politics of recognition

This collection of chapters provides the most comprehensive study of the theory and practice on the contribution of international organisations and non-State actors to the formation of customary international law. It offers new practical and theoretical perspectives on one of the most complex questions about the making of international law, namely the possibility that actors other than states contribute to the making of customary international law. Notwithstanding the completion by the International Law Commission of its work on the identification of customary international law, the making of customary international law remains riddled with acute practical and theoretical controversies which have been left unresolved and which continue to be intensively debated in both practice and scholarship. Making extensively reference to the case-law of international law courts and tribunals as well as the practice of treaty-monitoring bodies while also engaging with the most recent scholarly work on customary international law, this new volume provides innovative tools and guidance to legal scholars, researchers in law, law students, lecturers in law, practitioners, legal advisers, judges, arbitrators, and counsels as well as tools to address contemporary questions of international law-making.

Abstract only
Mary Venner

Official reports on the UN Mission in Kosovo generally refer to UNMIK as the only significant actor in the territory during its post-conflict reconstruction. In the field of public administration development, however, several large and influential international organisations and bilateral donors in addition to the UN played leading roles. Although the majority of these actors

in Donors, technical assistance and public administration in Kosovo
What we have learned and what lies ahead
Harold Trinkunas

wants to do something to show we're not all wasting our time’ (BBC News 2020 ). The singular declaration of a US president of the transformation of the Taliban from recognition as a terrorist organisation to a potential counterinsurgent highlights the powerful effect that acts of recognition, mis-recognition and non-recognition of armed non-state actors (ANSAs) can have in the course of civil conflict. This is only one speech by a US leader in a long-lasting conflict, and it may not in the long run have an impact, but it was an unusually visible

in Armed non-state actors and the politics of recognition
Richard Gaunt

11 Sir Robert Peel as actor-dramatist Richard Gaunt O n 2 May 1997, on leaving Downing Street as Prime Minister for the last time, John Major observed that ‘when the curtain falls, it is time to get off the stage’. There could hardly have been a more appropriate metaphor for the theatre of modern British politics. Standing on Downing Street outside the famous black door of No. 10 – both of which have become props in a political stage-set which forms the back-drop for national political life – Major addressed an audience composed nominally of television cameras

in Politics, performance and popular culture