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Overview of conflict and assistance from 2001 to 2014
Eric James and Tim Jacoby

between organizational structure and individual agency, humanitarian ethics and the link between security and development. In Chapter 4 , attention shifted to the case study, examining the history of Afghanistan by deploying the three drivers of the military–humanitarian relationship first discussed in Chapter 2 . The purpose of this chapter is to describe the situation in

in The military-humanitarian complex in Afghanistan
Authors: Eric James and Tim Jacoby

Over recent years, the relationship between humanitarians and the military has become especially controversial. Concerns over inefficient and duplicated assistance programs and the compromised security of relief workers have been regularly highlighted. Many point to ongoing tensions and polarized positions that seem to leave NGOs a stark choice between “neutrality” and co-option. Using Afghanistan as a case study, this book analyses this apparent duality. It puts forward five basic arguments. First, the history of the relationship extends prior to the birth of modern humanitarianism. Second, inter-organizational friction is common between groups and it does not always have a detrimental impact. Third, working with the military does not necessarily create more dangerous situations for NGOs. Fourth, humanitarian principles are not a fixed set of propositions, but evolve according to temporal and situational context. Finally, humanitarians are generally not co-opted, but rather willingly take part in political-military endeavors. In all, it is suggested that NGOs tend to change their policies and actions depending on the context. The book thus transcends the simple “for” or “against” arguments, leading to a more refined understanding of the relationship between NGOs and the military.

Abstract only
Philip Hammond

This chapter focuses on Operation Enduring Freedom: the US-led military action in Afghanistan, undertaken in response to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the US. In justifying its military response, the US cited both the authority of the UN Security Council, which passed a resolution on 12 September 2001 describing the terrorist attacks as a ‘threat to international

in Framing post-Cold War conflicts
A test case for a rising power
Harsh V. Pant

9 India and Afghanistan: a test case for a rising power Welcoming Afghan President Ashraf Ghani in India in April 2015, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi underlined that “the relationship between India and Afghanistan is not just between two countries or governments. It is a timeless link of human hearts.”1 With that spirit Modi made it clear that India would support Afghanistan’s security forces and open the Attari checkpoint in Punjab to Afghan trucks in order to increase trade between the two countries. Modi stated: “India will walk shoulder to shoulder

in Indian foreign policy
Eric James and Tim Jacoby

principles were important to most organizations working in Afghanistan but they were heavily influenced by the politically charged environment. Finally, humanitarians understood that they are part of the stability and state-building process in Afghanistan and, for that reason, those issues relating to co-option and politicization are less significant than is commonly assumed

in The military-humanitarian complex in Afghanistan
A mixed set of perceptions
James W. Peterson

Introduction Following the initial shock and surprise of confronting the qualitatively new challenges from the Chechens and al Qaeda, both America and Russia moved to a new plateau, with wars fought on the territory of other nation-states in the first decade of the new century. While Russia's war in Georgia lasted only a few days, its roots in the past were deep and its impact on relations with other states in the near future was considerable. America's wars in Afghanistan and Iraq were brief in terms of achieving the initial objective of

in Russian-American relations in the post-Cold War world
Eric James and Tim Jacoby

Introduction Afghanistan’s experiences with war and resistance, development and crisis, ideology and big-power politics have had powerful influences and serve as a backdrop to the military–humanitarian relationship. The country’s history has been well covered elsewhere and the features of it political history are summarized in Table 4

in The military-humanitarian complex in Afghanistan
David Rieff

. If humanitarian certainties have been upended, it is not in Sri Lanka, or even Syria or Afghanistan, but in the NGO response to the migration crisis in Greece and in the Mediterranean. For here, whether they like it or not, when they rescue people at sea who are trying to get to Europe, relief NGOs are involved not just in caritative work, whose deontology is relatively straightforward ethically; here, they are important actors in a profound political struggle, whose outcome, along with the response or non-response to climate change, is likely to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Lessons learned, lessons lost
Author: Thomas R. Seitz

This book explores the processes through which nation-building policy approaches originated and developed over the last seven decades as well as the concepts and motivations that shaped them. In the process, the book explores the question of how the US became involved in nation building overseas in the first place, and explores the persistent questions about the relationship between order, security and development in nation-building projects. At the same time, the book points out lessons that should have been retained from America's Cold War nation-building efforts in developing areas. At the cost of a great deal of treasure and no small amount of blood, the United States implemented nation building and other internal security programs in dozens of developing countries at the height of the Cold War. A generation after these policies peaked in scope and intensity, the US embarked on similar projects in a range of countries, the most ambitious in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, recent studies of America's experience with nation-building neglect these Cold War experiences in the developing world, ignoring costly lessons from efforts by which the US attempted to build functioning, cohesive state institutions in less developed contexts, including new states emerging from the decolonization process.

Roxana Ferllini

This article presents an account of the involvement of forensic anthropology in the investigation of human rights abuses in the modern era, and the difficulties it faces with respect to lack of adequate funding, volatile settings, the presence of unexploded ordnance, corruption in governmental agencies and a lack of good will, absence of support for NGOs and the curtailment of formal judicial proceedings to effect transitional justice. Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan, Spain, Mexico and the Northern Triangle are provided as regional examples of the problems encountered when attempting to conduct forensic anthropological investigations to locate mass graves, retrieve victims and obtain proper identifications. Interventions by various organisations are highlighted to illustrate their assistance to forensic and non-forensic individuals through technical support, training and mentoring in the areas of crime-scene management and identification techniques. Interventions in mass-grave processing when state agencies have failed, the importance of DNA banks and information from family members and witnesses are also presented.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal