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Ethnicity, identity, gender and race, 1772–1914

This book is a full-length study of the role of the Scots from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. It highlights the interaction of Scots with African peoples, the manner in which missions and schools were credited with producing ‘Black Scotsmen’ and the ways in which they pursued many distinctive policies. The book also deals with the inter-weaving of issues of gender, class and race, as well as with the means by which Scots clung to their ethnicity through founding various social and cultural societies. It contributes to both Scottish and South African history, and, in the process, illuminates a significant field of the Scottish Diaspora that has so far received little attention.

Africa in history textbooks
Kathryn Castle

. The slave trade was not a commerce, but a crime ... pillage and murder. 11 Finally, the responsibility for the pernicious trade was placed partially upon the African peoples themselves, in the textbooks’ assertion that the compliance of the West African tribes was critical to the supply of the human cargo. While the reader might just about

in Britannia’s children
John M. MacKenzie

Hunting was an important part of the pre-colonial economy and diet of many African peoples. The disappearance of game from some parts of the continent by the end of the nineteenth century, the imposition of game legislation, the attempt to separate human settlement from animal habitat

in The Empire of Nature
Kathryn Nash

, self-determination of the black race, unity of the African people, economic development of Africa, and finding a dignified niche for Africans within the international system. 4 However, within this encompassing philosophy there are deliberate points of vagueness. Unity, in particular, is a fluid concept and the degree of desired cohesiveness and cooperation has been continually debated. 5 In a political sense, pan-Africanism manifested in African regional policies that valued cooperation among states over integration, demanded self-government for all Africans

in African peace
Maryinez Lyons

Colonial powers commonly regarded their medical and public health programmes as a form of compensation for the hardships caused by their colonisation of African peoples. 1 By the early 1940s the Belgians were proud of their colonial medical services in the Congo which they considered to be an outstanding feature of their ‘civilising mission’. The history of medical services in the

in Imperial medicine and indigenous societies
The rhetoric of control and Belgium’s late colonial state
Matthew Stanard

. From the 1940s through the 1950s Belgians remained publicly committed to a colonialism in the service of the ‘civilizing mission’, even after others had dropped the phrase and after ‘colonialism’ accrued negative connotations. They said their task was distinctive because central African peoples were so backward, and unlike in Britain, France and Portugal, the Belgian outlook was uncomplicated by

in Rhetorics of empire
Michael Harrigan

the legitimate possessor’.59 There was, however, one difficulty, which stemmed precisely from the question of the ‘legitimacy’ of property. Fromageau considered three manners of enslavement, through just war (iure belli), through criminal punishment (condemnatione) and through act of purchase (emptione) to be ‘just within themselves’, but ‘very often not so according to circumstances’. He thought that the first manner was problematic because African peoples went to war ‘out of passion, for trivial motives and with the sole view of acquiring slaves’, expecting that

in Frontiers of servitude
African–German encounters
Eva Bischoff

little ebony imps had ever set eyes on. Consequently, I suppose, they regarded me as a sort of pale-faced bogey, to be avoided promptly, and at all hazards. 1 Gehrts's travel journal has been lauded by Gudrun Honke and János Riesz as one of the primary examples of German ‘humanistic’ colonial literature, characterised by a growing respect for African peoples and their cultures. 2 In this chapter

in Savage worlds
Abstract only
Imperialism and identities
John M. MacKenzie and Nigel R. Dalziel

, for good or ill, Scots contributed more powerfully than their numbers would suggest to the processes of westernisation and modernisation in the region. Through their linguistic and ethnographic activities, particularly in the context of the frontier missions, they had a considerable influence upon attitudes to African peoples, to the classic nineteenth-century activity, derived from the Enlightenment, of

in The Scots in South Africa
Hunting, Conservation and British Imperialism

Changing approaches to hunting constitute an important theme in human history. This book uses hunting as one focus for the complex interaction of Europeans with Africans and Indians. It seeks to illuminate the nature of imperial power when exercised in the relationship between humans and the natural world. The main geographical emphasis is on southern, Central and East Africa, as well as South Asia, but reference is made to other parts of Africa and Asia and to the effects of white settlement elsewhere. The great hunters of the ancient world offered protection to their subjects' life and limb and to their crops by destroying wild predators. In Britain the nineteenth-century hunting cult had an extraordinary range of cultural manifestations. Pheasant covert, grouse moor and deer forest, explored and dominated by humans in the Hunt, became prime elements in nineteenth-century Romanticism. Hunting was an important part of the pre-colonial economy and diet of many African peoples. The importance of hunting was very apparent at the court of Mzilikazi, king of the Ndebele. As the animal resources of southern Africa became more important to the international economy in the first decades of the nineteenth century they came to be studied and hunted for science and sport. This apotheosis of the hunting mentality survived at least into the inter-war years and was indeed inherited by the Indianised Indian Civil Service and army in the years leading up to independence. Hunting remains important to those who continue to exercise global power.