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Fanning Sarah E. and O’Callaghan Claire

Tenant of Wildfell Hall and ITV’s 2009 adaptation of Emily Brontë’s Wuthering Heights . The BBC’s Tenant boldly asserts that Arthur Huntingdon’s (Rupert Graves) physical and sexual abuse of his wife (Tara Fitzgerald) is the result of his alcoholism while ITV’s Wuthering Heights makes clear that Hindley Earnshaw (Burn Gorman) uses alcohol to self-medicate. While both adaptations explore the

in Diagnosing history
Alcohol and public health
James Nicholls

absolutely nothing to do with the regulation of drunkenness in other walks of life. However, the problem of the ‘habitual drunkard’ had certainly not gone away. As Betsy Thom has shown, the disease model of alcoholism re-emerged in the 1950s, driven by the adoption of the concept by the World Health Organisation and by the spread of Alcoholics Anonymous from America. The establishment of the first AA group in Croydon in 1952 provided a springboard for the extension of the AA approach to alcoholism across the country.7 The AA conception of alcoholism was by no means the

in The politics of alcohol
Author: Steven Earnshaw

Drinking to excess has been a striking problem for industrial and post-industrial societies – who is responsible when a ‘free’ individual opts for a slow suicide? The causes of such drinking have often been blamed on heredity, moral weakness, ‘disease’ (addiction), hedonism, and Romantic illusion. Yet there is another reason which may be more fundamental and which has been overlooked or dismissed, and it is that the drinker may act with sincere philosophical intent. The Existential Drinker looks at the convergence of a new kind of excessive, habitual drinking, beginning in the nineteenth century, and a new way of thinking about the self which in the twentieth century comes to be labelled ‘Existential’. A substantial introduction covers questions of self, will, consciousness, authenticity, and ethics in relation to drinking, while introducing aspects of Existential thought pertinent to the discussion. The Existential-drinker canon is anchored in Jack London’s ‘alcoholic memoir’ John Barleycorn (1913), where London claims he can get at the truth of existence only through the insights afforded by excessive and repeated alcohol use. The book then covers drinker-texts such as Jean Rhys’s interwar novels, Malcolm Lowry’s Under the Volcano, Charles Jackson’s The Lost Weekend and John O’Brien’s Leaving Las Vegas, along with less well-known works such as Frederick Exley’s A Fan’s Notes, Venedikt Yerofeev’s Moscow–Petushki, and A. L. Kennedy’s Paradise. The book will appeal to anybody with an interest in drinking and literature, as well as those with more specialised concerns in drinking studies, Existentialism, twentieth-century literature, and medical humanities.

Joanne Woiak

Discourses and policies that connected the concepts of alcoholism and degeneration were prominent sites at which disability was constructed in the Victorian and Edwardian eras. Alcoholism was perceived as a ‘borderland’ disability, the boundaries of which were defined in distinct ways by members of various groups of professionals and reformers. Physicians, psychiatrists, temperance advocates and eugenicists promoted and contested a variety of ideas about the aetiology and effects of inebriety. These medical and eugenic discourses focused on

in Disability and the Victorians
Abstract only
Steven Earnshaw

, at that moment of introduction X accepts that all along his or her self has been, is, and will continue to be, that of an ‘alcoholic’. X as an individual is thus subsumed into the AA narrative of what an alcoholic is, and for which there can be no other way of being. X is told (and accepts) that he or she is the same as all other people who drink heavily because he or she has the disease ‘alcoholism’, which cannot be cured, only managed. In declaring ‘I am an alcoholic’ there is an implicit assertion that X’s ‘self’ is not of his or her own creation, rather, it is

in The Existential drinker
Life projects
Steven Earnshaw

rather like The Lost Weekend  –​suggest conflicting interpretations. The first might be a judgement that the novel wholly accepts ‘alcoholism’ as the correct psychological and medical frame for understanding Birnam’s behaviour, and gives a pitch-​perfect portrayal of the alcoholic as a narcissist.6 It thus displays the full array of psychoanalytic, psychological, and medical 9 Charles Jackson, The Lost Weekend 99 terminology that might accompany such a judgement. Another interpretation might foreground the type of metaphysical element identified in the previous

in The Existential drinker
Abstract only
The armed forces of the colonial powers c. 1700–1964

For imperialists, the concept of guardian is specifically to the armed forces that kept watch on the frontiers and in the heartlands of imperial territories. Large parts of Asia and Africa, and the islands of the Pacific and the Caribbean were imperial possessions. This book discusses how military requirements and North Indian military culture, shaped the cantonments and considers the problems posed by venereal diseases and alcohol, and the sanitary strategies pursued to combat them. The trans-border Pathan tribes remained an insistent problem in Indian defence between 1849 and 1947. The book examines the process by which the Dutch elite recruited military allies, and the contribution of Indonesian soldiers to the actual fighting. The idea of naval guardianship as expressed in the campaign against the South Pacific labour trade is examined. The book reveals the extent of military influence of the Schutztruppen on the political developments in the German protectorates in German South-West Africa and German East Africa. The U.S. Army, charged with defending the Pacific possessions of the Philippines and Hawaii, encountered a predicament similar to that of the mythological Cerberus. The regimentation of military families linked access to women with reliable service, and enabled the King's African Rifles to inspire a high level of discipline in its African soldiers, askaris. The book explains the political and military pressures which drove successive French governments to widen the scope of French military operations in Algeria between 1954 and 1958. It also explores gender issues and African colonial armies.

Abstract only
Griselda Pollock

The chapter poses a very simple but important question: How did Lee Krasner make her artistic move from one painting to another across a moment of crisis in art and life in 1956–57? How did an abstract painter defy a figure that had emerged in her work? In early summer 1956 Krasner faced such a profound challenge. As a dedicated abstract painter who had been so since the later 1930s, she unexpectedly found herself confronting a monstrous figure that surfaced on her canvas, which she unnervingly titled Prophecy. Disturbed by the turn in her work, and taking a break from life with Jackson Pollock, who had once again succumbed to alcoholism, Krasner went to Europe where she soon learned of his tragic death. She returned to battle with grief but also with the unexpected ‘arrival’ of an image, a monumental figure in her own work. Who or what had surfaced in Prophecy? How did she deal with this? What was at stake? What led to the jouissant painting, Sun Woman I (1957)?

in Killing Men & Dying Women
Medicine and the law
James Nicholls

12 The study of inebriety: medicine and the law For once grant that inebriety is a disease over which the victim has little or no control, and it follows that the inebriate, like the lunatic, needs to be protected, not only for his own, but for the public good. (Harry Campbell) Prison is no cure for alcoholism. (Hugh Wingfield) The period between 1870 and 1918 saw extensive debate on licensing, management of the drinks trade and the social effects of public drinking. However, it also witnessed intense intellectual and political activity around a parallel, but

in The politics of alcohol
Author: Jacopo Pili

Anglophobia in Fascist Italy traces the roots of Fascist Anglophobia from the Great War and through the subsequent peace treaties and its development during the twenty years of Mussolini’s regime. Initially, Britain was seen by many Italians as a ‘false friend’ who was also the main obstacle to Italy’s foreign policy aspirations, a view embraced by Mussolini and his movement. While at times dormant, this Anglophobic sentiment did not disappear in the years that followed, and was later rekindled during the Ethiopian War. The peculiarly Fascist contribution to the assessment of Britain was ideological. From the mid-1920s, the regime’s intellectuals saw Fascism as the answer to a crisis in the Western world and as irredeemably opposed to Western civilisation of the sort exemplified by Britain. Britain was described as having failed the ‘problem of labour’, and Fascism framed as a salvation ideology, which nations would either embrace or face decay. The perception of Britain as a decaying and feeble nation increased after the Great Depression. The consequence of this was a consistent underrating of British power and resolve to resist Italian ambitions. An analysis of popular reception of the Fascist discourse shows that the tendency to underrate Britain had permeated large sectors of the Italian people, and that public opinion was more hostile to Britain than previously thought. Indeed, in some quarters hatred towards the British lasted until the end of the Second World War, in both occupied and liberated Italy.