The influence of Florence Nightingale on Southern nurses during the American Civil War
American Nightingales: The influence
of Florence Nightingale on Southern
nurses during the American Civil War
Florence Nightingale, through her reported remodelling of nursing
in the inadequate British army medical services in the Crimea,
gave a degree of dignity to nursing as a profession in the 1850s.
Nightingale’s inspiration was felt throughout the western world
including the antebellum South in the United States. Prior to the
American Civil War (1861–65) Southerners shared many British
Victorian values including the thoughts that caring
It is possible to argue that Latin America is no more than
a geographical expression, and that, rather than trying to
generalize across a range of different countries, we need to
focus on the history of the individual republics. Certainly
there are significant differences within the region, and path
dependency is a factor in determining particular political
outcomes. However, there are important similarities within
the region as well. All Latin American political systems are
presidential. No Latin American country has achieved a
Tuesday, October 23 rd / I wished to-day to set out for the island of Cuba, which I believe must be Cipangu [Japan], according to the indications which these people give me concerning its size and riches. 1
– Christopher Columbus
With these words from his journal of 1492, Christopher Columbus, the Genoese merchant sailor and somewhat reluctant ‘discoverer’ of America, made a geographical mistake that he was to repeat consistently until his death. Columbus was convinced that the land he had sailed to in 1492 was not a newly discovered world, but
Bodily discourse in the early English colonial imagination
favourable 1602 account of northern Virginia, illustrates the centrality of European understandings of the body, and their relationship to environment, in early English exploration and colonisation. Brereton commented on the natural constitution of the Indigenous population but also suggested what effect the new American environment would have on English bodies. Rather than impacting negatively on the English explorers’ constitutions, the wholesome and temperate climate of Virginia in fact made English bodies stronger and healthier. Two different forces are at play in
, about America’ ( CPR 151). For Roth, ignorance includes, especially, the question of knowing about oneself: ‘blank space is part of who one is to oneself’, he suggests in a 1988 interview. And there are important if sometimes subtle discriminations to be made with respect to ignorance: ‘there’s a difference, on the one hand, between not knowing and not knowing that you don’t know and, on the other, not knowing and knowing why you don’t know – and even, paradoxically, knowing what it is you don’t know’ ( CPR 234).
Roth has also declared
Focusing our understanding of Hollywood and HUAC on questions of presence and content
is to apply paradigms of authorship and genre which were critical by-products of the
cultural transformation to which HUAC contributed, and will as a result have limited
critical purchase on its causes. What might break this critical impasse would be the
discovery of something outside the circle; something not easily, or at least not yet,
assimilated into its cycle of repetitions. Such a remainder can be found in a film
which is arguably one of the most important productions of the period: Edward
Dmytryk‘s ‘lost’ film of Italian/American author Pietro di Donatos novel Christ in
Encountering early America traces the history of England’s first century of encounters with America. As this book argues, the sixteenth century represents a discreet and influential period in the history of English encounters with the Americas that is characterised by a multiplicity of approaches. The book provides a crucial chapter in the larger history of the development of the British Empire. It reminds us that the march of British imperialism was by no means inevitable, or exceptional. The emergence of English overseas colonies in the Americas was the result of a century-long engagement with the imperial practices of other European nations and was the consequence of a dynamic and adaptive approach to exploration and settlement that was often born from previous failure. To illuminate these complex processes, the book uncovers the various cultural associations that shaped English perceptions of the New World, and in turn English approaches to exploration and colonisation. It assesses how English colonisers and explorers constructed theories of empire using Old World frameworks of understanding, examines how explorative failures and an oscillating English religious, economic, and cultural landscape affected English New World ventures, and explores how the practicalities of English trade and settlement in the Americas manifested themselves in descriptions of Indigenous appearance and behaviour and in accounts of American environments. The book will be of particular interest to scholars and students working on early English colonialism in North America and European cultural encounters with the New World.
exacerbated political cleavages in British society.
This chapter uses a transatlantic lens through which to reassess the origins and impact of Powell’s “Rivers of Blood” speech. In so doing, it contributes to recent scholarship that evaluates the mutual influence of Britain and the United States in shaping diasporic racial politics. 2 That literature has focused largely on the adoption and adaptation of American civil rights activism by campaigners for racial equality in Britain and, to a lesser extent, the reverse transmission of political tactics. Scholars have
That colonialism has associations with eighteenth century humanism is not a controversial claim. The eighteenth century with its fascination with how the subject knows has a central place in Foucault‘s account of the rise of the human sciences in The Order of Things. More recently Leela Gandhi has explored how the virtual construction of subjectivity in the eighteenth century was closely associated with the conceptual formulation of humanity. In these humanist constructions the human became defined by its relation to the non-human in a process where ideas about racial difference were used to form the hierarchies in which subjects were racially located. For Foucault, in the eighteenth century, the subject becomes both an object of knowledge (one that is understood ‘scientifically‘) and a subject who knows one that is interpreted `metaphysically`). This apparently scientific reading of the ‘objective status‘ of the subject reflects on the construction of race as an indicator of Otherness. The wider claim made by Leela Gandhi is that this position has a vestigial presence in much of todays `science‘. It is this correlation between race and certain pseudo-scientific taxonomies relating to race which underpin, in the nineteenth century, those theories of degeneration that attempted to account for perceptions of imperial decline, and it is these ideas that influenced Stoker‘s writings. Most notably Dracula has received considerable critical attention on the novels reliance on a model of degeneracy that articulates contemporary anxieties relating to criminality and race; this common view of Dracula is one that associates the Other (the vampire) with theories of degeneracy. The novel is also, arguably self-consciously so, about knowledge. The oddly unheroic pursuit of the vampire hunters is apparent in their search through documentation in order to develop an explanatory theory for vampirism. It is this pursuit of knowledge which is also to be found in A,Glimpse of America (1886) and The Mystery of the Sea (1902). Knowledge as knowledge of the national and/or racial Other is the central issue to which Stoker keeps returning.