It is possible to argue that Latin America is no more than
a geographical expression, and that, rather than trying to
generalize across a range of different countries, we need to
focus on the history of the individual republics. Certainly
there are significant differences within the region, and path
dependency is a factor in determining particular political
outcomes. However, there are important similarities within
the region as well. All Latin American political systems are
presidential. No Latin American country has achieved a
The influence of Florence Nightingale on Southern nurses during the American Civil War
American Nightingales: The influence
of Florence Nightingale on Southern
nurses during the American Civil War
Florence Nightingale, through her reported remodelling of nursing
in the inadequate British army medical services in the Crimea,
gave a degree of dignity to nursing as a profession in the 1850s.
Nightingale’s inspiration was felt throughout the western world
including the antebellum South in the United States. Prior to the
American Civil War (1861–65) Southerners shared many British
Victorian values including the thoughts that caring
Tuesday, October 23 rd / I wished to-day to set out for the island of Cuba, which I believe must be Cipangu [Japan], according to the indications which these people give me concerning its size and riches. 1
– Christopher Columbus
With these words from his journal of 1492, Christopher Columbus, the Genoese merchant sailor and somewhat reluctant ‘discoverer’ of America, made a geographical mistake that he was to repeat consistently until his death. Columbus was convinced that the land he had sailed to in 1492 was not a newly discovered world, but
Bodily discourse in the early English colonial imagination
favourable 1602 account of northern Virginia, illustrates the centrality of European understandings of the body, and their relationship to environment, in early English exploration and colonisation. Brereton commented on the natural constitution of the Indigenous population but also suggested what effect the new American environment would have on English bodies. Rather than impacting negatively on the English explorers’ constitutions, the wholesome and temperate climate of Virginia in fact made English bodies stronger and healthier. Two different forces are at play in
, about America’ ( CPR 151). For Roth, ignorance includes, especially, the question of knowing about oneself: ‘blank space is part of who one is to oneself’, he suggests in a 1988 interview. And there are important if sometimes subtle discriminations to be made with respect to ignorance: ‘there’s a difference, on the one hand, between not knowing and not knowing that you don’t know and, on the other, not knowing and knowing why you don’t know – and even, paradoxically, knowing what it is you don’t know’ ( CPR 234).
Roth has also declared
Encountering early America traces the history of England’s first century of encounters with America. As this book argues, the sixteenth century represents a discreet and influential period in the history of English encounters with the Americas that is characterised by a multiplicity of approaches. The book provides a crucial chapter in the larger history of the development of the British Empire. It reminds us that the march of British imperialism was by no means inevitable, or exceptional. The emergence of English overseas colonies in the Americas was the result of a century-long engagement with the imperial practices of other European nations and was the consequence of a dynamic and adaptive approach to exploration and settlement that was often born from previous failure. To illuminate these complex processes, the book uncovers the various cultural associations that shaped English perceptions of the New World, and in turn English approaches to exploration and colonisation. It assesses how English colonisers and explorers constructed theories of empire using Old World frameworks of understanding, examines how explorative failures and an oscillating English religious, economic, and cultural landscape affected English New World ventures, and explores how the practicalities of English trade and settlement in the Americas manifested themselves in descriptions of Indigenous appearance and behaviour and in accounts of American environments. The book will be of particular interest to scholars and students working on early English colonialism in North America and European cultural encounters with the New World.
exacerbated political cleavages in British society.
This chapter uses a transatlantic lens through which to reassess the origins and impact of Powell’s “Rivers of Blood” speech. In so doing, it contributes to recent scholarship that evaluates the mutual influence of Britain and the United States in shaping diasporic racial politics. 2 That literature has focused largely on the adoption and adaptation of American civil rights activism by campaigners for racial equality in Britain and, to a lesser extent, the reverse transmission of political tactics. Scholars have
The middle months of 2016 in the North Atlantic world offered a distinctly depressing constellation. This book offers a nuanced and multifaceted collection of essays covering a wide range of concerns, concepts, presidential doctrines, and rationalities of government thought to have marked America's engagement with the world during this period. The spate of killings of African Americans raised acute issues about the very parameters of citizenship that predated the era of Civil Rights and revived views on race associated with the pre- Civil War republic. The book analyses an account of world politics that gives ontological priority to 'race' and assigns the state a secondary or subordinate function. Andrew Carnegie set out to explain the massive burst in productivity in the United States between 1830 and 1880, and in so doing to demonstrate the intrinsic superiority of republicanism. He called for the abolition of hereditary privilege and a written constitution. The book also offers an exegesis of the US foreign policy narrative nested in the political thought of the German jurist Carl Schmitt. Understanding the nature of this realist exceptionalism properly means rethinking the relationship between realism and liberalism. The book revisits Samuel Huntington's The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order, which reviews the intellectual and policy environment of the immediate post- Cold War years. Finally, it discusses Paul Dundes Wolfowitz, best known for his hawkish service to the George W. Bush administration, and his strong push for the invasion and occupation of Iraq.
Nineteenth-century German literature and indigenous representations
Chapter Nine The savagery of America? Nineteenth-century German
literature and indigenous representations Nicole
During the long nineteenth century, one of
the issues occupying the minds of German intellectuals was the phenomenon of mass
emigration to America. Significant traces of this preoccupation can be found in
the fiction of the time, reflecting the tensions and concerns of a deeply
stratified and conflicted society. In the