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Methodist missionaries in colonial and postcolonial Upper Burma, 1887–1966

The first British Methodist missionaries came to Upper Burma in 1887 and the last left in 1966. They were known as 'Wesleyans' before 1932 and afterwards as 'Methodists'. This book is a study of the ambitions, activities and achievements of Methodist missionaries in northern Burma from 1887-1966 and the expulsion of the last missionaries by Ne Win. Henry Venn, the impeccably evangelical Secretary of the Church Missionary Society (CMS), was the most distinguished and inspiring of nineteenth-century mission administrators. Wesleyan missionaries often found property development more congenial than saving souls. In Pakokku in December 1905, a 'weak' American missionary from Myingyan and a couple of Baptist Burman government officials began 'totally immersing' Wesleyans. Proselytism was officially frowned upon in the Indian Empire. The Wesley high schools were extraordinarily successful during the early years of the twentieth century. The Colonial Government was investing heavily in education. A bamboo curtain descended on Upper Burma in May 1942. Wesley Church Mandalay was gutted during the bombing raids of April 1942 and the Japanese requisitioned the Mission House and the Girls High School soon afterwards. General Ne Win was ruthlessly radical in 1962. By April 1964 Bishop was the last 'front-line' Methodist missionary in Upper Burma and the last European of any sort in Monywa. The book pulls together the themes of conflict, politics and proselytisation in to a fascinating study of great breadth.

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, Underwood, Young, Early, Adcock and Skinner – and four new Women’s Auxiliary missionaries – the Misses Moore, Merrick, Hanna and Winston – arrived between 1908 and 1916. The Upper Burma Mission was beginning to feel substantial and permanent. Deteriorating relationships with other missionary societies were the only blots on the landscape. Perhaps it was a sign of their growing confidence that missionaries could afford to squabble amongst themselves. In Pakokku in December 1905, a ‘weak’ American missionary from Myingyan

in Conflict, politics and proselytism
A study in language politics

designated readers – the society persisted in promoting it. 12 The society's commitment to the Negro-English Bible of Surinam anticipated its behaviour towards Arabic almost a century later. Indeed, during the early twentieth century, certain prominent British and American missionaries, who were working on the ground in North Africa and who were eager to appeal to Arab elites, expressed deep misgivings about the society's willingness to publish versions for the hoi polloi . Leaders of the BFBS were

in Chosen peoples
Humanitarianism and the Victorian diplomat

educating Christian minorities, such as the American missionary-run Robert College. In these schools, minorities with few rights and privileges ‘acquired their knowledge of the institutions, laws, and customs of civilised countries and those principles of political freedom’. For Layard, the spread of liberal democratic institutions and values was in part responsible for helping

in The cultural construction of the British world

millions, and most of them clustered in a few places – such as Manila, Iloilo, Cebu, Baguio, Davao, Zamboanga. Filipinos who made it to high school or college came in contact with a few American teachers. There was a sprinkling of zealous American missionaries all over the country, and there were plantation owners or managers in many parts of the country. The Americans were influential in running the

in Asia in Western fiction
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respects it was due to the efforts of Phillips and AMB [American Missionary Board]. Even before the opening of the BMSC [Bantu Men’s Social Club], Phillips and Bridgman were publicly acknowledged as ‘the pioneers of the pictorial education of the Native’. (Petersen 2003 : 38) Is important to note, however, that the supposedly benevolent paternalistic

in Postcolonial African cinema

suspicion of mission education by the colonial authorities, 61 further contributed to the fact that medical education in Britain was effectively blocked from Malawians. American missionary organisations provided a route to higher education for a few South-Central Africans. The two first Malawians to qualify as doctors in the United States were Dr Daniel Sharpe Malekebu ( c. 1890–1978) and Dr Hastings Kamuzu

in Medicine, mobility and the empire
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. Eerdmans, 1980 ); Diane Langmore, Missionary Lives: Papua, 1874–1914 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1989 ); Jane Hunter, The Gospel of Gentility: American women missionaries in turn of the century China (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1984 ); Patricia Grimshaw, Paths of Duty: American missionary wives in nineteenth-century Hawaii (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1989); Patricia Ruth Hill, The World their Household: the American woman’s foreign mission movement and cultural

in Missionary families
Westerners and Chinese Christians in Chongqing, 1870s-1900

first step toward foreign control of the province. Compared with the treaty port cities of the coastal regions, as illustrated in the other chapters in this volume, foreigners came to Sichuan relatively late. With the exception of a few dozen French Catholic priests and a handful of British and American missionaries and trade representatives, Westerners did not come to the province in large numbers until Chongqing was forced open as a treaty port in 1891. Within a few years, consulates were set up by the British, French

in New frontiers
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Mission medicine and Bhil modernity

devotional practices. In this way, modernity has been freed from its association in this region with Christianity, being now aligned predominantly with forms of contemporary Hindu practice. Notes 1 For a study of such work, see Shobana Shankar, ‘The Social Dimensions of Christian Leprosy Work among Muslims: American

in Missionaries and their medicine