When members of that oft-maligned institution, the Anglican Church – the 'Tory Party at prayer' – encountered the far-flung settler empire, they found it a strange and intimidating place. Anglicanism's conservative credentials seemed to have little place in developing colonies; its established status, secure in England, would crumble in Ireland and was destined never to be adopted in the 'White Dominions'. By 1850, however, a global ‘Anglican Communion’ was taking shape. This book explains why Anglican clergymen started to feel at home in the empire. Between 1790 and 1860 the Church of England put in place structures that enabled it to sustain a common institutional structure and common set of beliefs across a rapidly-expanding ‘British world’. Though Church expansion was far from being a regulated and coordinated affair, the book argues that churchmen did find ways to accommodate Anglicans of different ethnic backgrounds and party attachments in a single broad-based ‘national’ colonial Church. The book details the array of institutions, voluntary societies and inter-colonial networks that furnished the men and money that facilitated Church expansion; it also sheds light on how this institutional context contributed to the formation of colonial Churches with distinctive features and identities. The colonial Church that is presented in this book will be of interest to more than just scholars and students of religious and Church history. The book shows how the colonial Church played a vital role in the formation of political publics and ethnic communities in a settler empire that was being remoulded by the advent of mass migration, democracy and the separation of Church and state.
An Impartial Collection of the Great Affairs of State was published in London, in two volumes, between 1682 and 1683. Its author John Nalson was a fervent believer in the twin pillars of the monarchy and the Anglican Church. In An Impartial Collection he holds up the internecine conflict of the 1640s as an example not to be followed during the 1680s, a period of further religious and political upheaval. Nalson’s text is anything but neutral, and its perspective is neatly summarised in the engraved frontispiece which prefaces the first volume. This article examines how this illustration, depicting a weeping Britannia accosted by a two-faced clergyman and a devil, adapts and revises an established visual vocabulary of ‘otherness’, implying disruption to English lives and liberties with origins both foreign and domestic. Such polemical imagery relies on shock value and provocation, but also contributes to a sophisticated conversation between a range of pictorial sources, reshaping old material to new concerns, and raising important questions regarding the visual literacy and acuity of its viewers.
the laity in British colonies would enjoy the kind of expansive role in Church administration seen in republican America. 8 There was also considerable distance separating the models of Church expansion put forward by the CBF and the UCCS. One looked to expansion driven by bishops; the other envisaged an Anglican Church that replicated itself through a series of self-governing lay committees
the evangelical and high church mission organisations that raised funds and recruited clergy for migrant communities. There is also a sizeable literature on the development of the various ‘national’ branches of the Anglican Church. 11 These studies of the Church’s inner workings are, however, far from exhaustive. Carey’s discussion of clerical recruitment is broad-ranging and is not based on a
Standard histories of the Anglican Church between 1660 and 1714 combine the story of its relations with dissenting rivals and its record of defence against Catholicism with accounts of internal tensions between church ‘parties’. These narratives cover the important ecclesiastical developments of the period, but they concentrate on events within a narrow English framework. This chapter will consider a
broader issues that would characterise Anglican Church expansion across the settler empire. One was the difficulty of transplanting English institutions, practices and ecclesiastical terminology overseas. English terms like ‘parishioner’ could not apply in colonies, such as Upper Canada, that were divided into townships rather than parishes. Clergy like Rudd also had little idea who to call a member of
church, a feature he saw as absent in some contemporary windows: ‘there has been a tendency to individualize such offerings far too much’. 10 Coleridge was a perceptive commentator for, as already discussed, personalising windows was a marked trend in stained-glass design. Coleridge was asserting an opinion about the nature of Anglican churches, and to him a church was for worshipping God through the performance of the
United Synagogue with the Anglican Church as an ‘ofﬁcial’ form of religion, and therefore with respectability.18 However, all these factors (apart from the last) applied also to the United States, where, 268 Post–War developments as Gurock has shown, before the Second World War the Orthodox Union was the largest synagogue body, but was largely composed of individuals who did not share its theology or halakhic standards. Yet by 1970 the proportion identifying as ‘orthodox’ had fallen to 11%.19 This rapid falling away did not happen in Britain and, as Taylor has
government.65 This poem along with most of the satirical material in The Poor Man’s Book of the Church was written by the Comet Club, a group of Catholic Dublin journalists opposed to the Church of Ireland and engaged in the Tithe War, the often bloody campaign in Ireland to resist the established Anglican Church’s tithes. The club was responsible for The Parson’s Horn Book, a satirical volume in which the engravings and poem in The Poor Man’s Book of the Church originally appeared, and later the Comet, a satirical anti-tithe newspaper.66 Alongside this appeared numerous
.’32 Most obviously, citizenship continued to be exclusive, something felt most sorely by Irish Roman Catholics but which, as Taylor shows, was also of growing concern in a colonial and imperial context, not least because of the idea of virtual representation was badly battered by American independence. Also important was the fact that many national distinctions remained intact, especially in terms of law, institutions and culture. Ditchfield, for example, powerfully demonstrates how the relationship between 9 JULIAN HOPPIT the Anglican Church and parliament set