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Author: Martin Thomas

Between 1940 and 1945 the French empire divided against itself. This book presents the events in the French empire in the 1940s, and traces the period of wartime French imperial division, setting it within the wider international politics of the Second World War. It discusses the collapse of France's metropolitan forces during the second week of June 1940, which became a calamity for the French empire. The final breakdown of the Anglo-French alliance during the latter half of 1940 was played out on the African continent, in heavily defended French imperial territory of vital strategic importance to Allied communications. The Vichy empire lost ground to that of the Charles de Gaulle's Free French, something which has often been attributed to the attraction of the Gaullist mystique and the spirit of resistance in the colonies. Indo-China was bound to be considered a special case by the Vichy regime and the Free French movement. Between late 1940 and 1945, the French administration in Indo-China was forced by circumstances to plough a distinctive furrow in order to survive intact. The book discusses the St Pierre and Miquelon affair, and the invasion of Madagascar, and deals with the issue of nationalism in North Africa, before and after the Operation Torch. The contradiction between the French commitment to constitutional reform and the few colonial subjects actually affected by it was echoed in the wartime treatment of France's colonial forces.

Clarendon, Cressy and Hobbes, and the past, present and future of the Church of England
Paul Seaward

Clarendon expecting Sir William Portman to come there in the summer of 1671. 222 223 Clarendon, Cressy and Hobbes 37 John Callow, ‘Churchill, Arabella (1649–​1730)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2008)​view/​article/​5394 [accessed 13 May 2015]. 38 Gabriel Glickman, ‘Christian Reunion, the Anglo-​French Alliance and the English Catholic Imagination, 1660–​ 72’, English Historical Review, 128 (2013), 263–​ 91; for Charles II’s interest in toleration for Catholics, and pressure from

in From Republic to Restoration
Jasmine Allen

, resulting in the 1856 Treaty of Paris. In this context, then, the presence of Peto’s window at the 1855 Paris Exposition reminded visitors of the imperial alliance underlying the on-​ going Crimean campaign, without addressing the brutal reality of these bloody battles. The imagery and inscriptions, ‘Hail Happy Union’, ‘Forever United’, and ‘Guardians of Europe’, presented an idealised depiction of this Anglo-​French alliance that was further pronounced by its presence in the Palais de l’Industrie, which Napoléon had christened ‘the temple of peace’.64 British and French

in Windows for the world
Abstract only
Geoffrey Hicks

5 Entente cordiale Malmesbury, Earl age 49: was Foreign Sec under Ld Derby, never held office before. Known to me intimately, as I served under him at the F.O. . . . goes at once to the point, has no illusions, no favourite theories; a good judge of character . . . A personal friend of the French Emperor; contributed to bring about the Anglo-French alliance. (Stanley, undated character sketch, circa 1853) From the summer of 1852, the most important foreign policy question facing the Conservatives was how Britain should respond to the anticipated declaration of

in Peace, war and party politics
Daniel Szechi

the Italian mainland, Admiral Byng proceeded to destroy the Spanish fleet as a fighting force. 27 A major Spanish army was thus left stranded in Sicily while French troops, mobilised under the Anglo-French alliance, massed on Spain’s northern frontier preparatory to an invasion of Catalonia. In such circumstances Alberoni had to do something dramatic to redress a balance of power seemingly inexorably turning against Spain. With the full support of his royal master he accordingly sent for James, appointed Ormonde a General in the Spanish service, summoned Marischal

in The Jacobites (second edition)
Martin Thomas

The final breakdown of the Anglo-French alliance during the latter half of 1940 was played out on the African continent, in heavily defended French imperial territory of vital strategic importance to Allied communications. The continued exercise of imperial sovereignty in North and West Africa was central to the Vichy regime’s self-image as a government which retained a measure

in The French empire at war 1940–45
Thomas Cogswell

to enforce the penal laws. This decision, although nearly rupturing the Anglo-French alliance, brought the regime into line with Parliament. We also can see similar connections by carefully examining two volumes of the Lord Admiral’s detailed naval warrant books and his reaction to parliamentary attacks on his care of the narrow seas. Scholars have long known about BL, Add. MSS 37,816–7, but most have left this dense collection of orders about victualling and appointments to 44 KYLE 9781526147158 PRINT.indd 44 26/02/2020 08:57 The Lord Admiral and the narrow

in Connecting centre and locality
Arlette Jouanna

to Pibrac, Monluc and Bellièvre.54 But their arguments did not prevent the efforts of the agents and ambassadors in the King’s service from bearing fruit. Jouanna_StBartholomews.indd 168 31/10/2012 15:14 The King’s truth, reason of the state 169 The Anglo-French alliance officially remained in force, but its real significance was reduced to virtually nothing; it did not prevent England from negotiating with Spain and signing a treaty with it on 13 March 1573. Elizabeth allowed Montgomery to gather a fleet of ships to help the rebel Huguenots in La Rochelle

in The Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
Sweden and the lesser powers in the long eighteenth century
Erik Bodensten

France. However, this treaty collapsed almost immediately as a result of a French policy reversal and an Anglo-French alliance.20 New and growing tensions between the great powers following the War of the Spanish Succession offered Sweden the opportunity of joining the western power bloc. Having done so, Sweden received significant British and French subsidies in 1727–1729, as well as much-needed security Warships, Navies and State Building in Europe and America, 1500–1860, vols I–II (Stockholm: Stockholms Universitet, 1993), vol. I, pp. 297–305; Jan Glete, ‘Navies

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Brexit in historical perspective
Robert Holland

“took back control” but it eventually led to civil war ’, London Evening Standard , 15 September. Ganesh , Janan ( 2017 ), ‘ Forget empire: Britain wants less no more ’, Financial Times , 11 April. Gates , Eleanor M. ( 1981 ), The End of an Affair: The Collapse of the Anglo-French Alliance, 1939–40 ( London : Allen & Unwin ). Giles , Chris ( 2018 ), ‘ Trade-offs are the answer if Britain is to move forward ’, Financial Times , 6 December. Hilton , Anthony ( 2019 ), ‘ We will soon see the true cost of cutting EU migration ’, Evening Standard , 10

in The road to Brexit