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Place, locality and memory
Author: Tony Kushner

This book is a study of the history and memory of Anglo-Jewry from medieval times to the present and explores the construction of identities, both Jewish and non-Jewish, in relation to the concept of place. The introductory chapters provide a theoretical overview focusing on the nature of local studies. The book then moves into a chronological frame, starting with medieval Winchester, moving to early modern Portsmouth, and then it covers the evolution of Anglo-Jewry from emancipation to the twentieth century. Emphasis is placed on the impact on identities resulting from the complex relationship between migration (including transmigration) and the settlement of minority groups. Drawing upon a range of approaches, including history, cultural and literary studies, geography, Jewish and ethnic and racial studies, the book uses extensive sources including novels, poems, art, travel literature, autobiographical writing, official documentation, newspapers and census data.

Paul Kelemen

2 Zionism and Anglo-Jewry Poale Zion’s effectiveness in gaining labour movement support partly depended on the wider Zionist movement’s campaign to win over Britain’s Jewish community. In 1930, well before Zionism came to dominate Anglo-Jewry’s political outlook, Lloyd George was advised, when addressing the Jewish electorate in Whitechapel, that it ‘would like to hear something brief and personal about Palestine’.1 In this period, declarations along these lines by prominent politicians would have been understood by most East End Jews as a gesture of

in The British left and Zionism

Britain's Chief Rabbis were attempting to respond to the new religious climate, and deployed a variety of tactics to achieve their aims. This book presents a radical new interpretation of Britain's Chief Rabbis from Nathan Adler to Immanuel Jakobovits. It examines the theologies of the Chief Rabbis and seeks to reveal and explain their impact on the religious life of Anglo-Jewry. The book begins with the study of Nathan Marcus Adler, Chief Rabbi from 1845, and it then explores how in 1880 Hermann Adler became Delegate Chief Rabbi on his father's semi-retirement to Brighton. In the pre-modern era, and for a while after, rabbis saw themselves and were seen as the heirs of the rabbinic tradition, whose role first and foremost was to rule on matters of religious law. The book argues that the Chief Rabbis' response to modernity should be viewed in the context of Jewish religious responses that emerged following the Enlightenment and Emancipation. It sketches out a possible typology of those responses, so that Chief Rabbis can be placed in that context. Chief Rabbis were members of the acknowledgement school, which contained a number of different theological currents: romantic, scientific, aesthetic and nostalgic. Hermann Adler was the Chief Rabbi during his time, and his religious policies were to a great extent motivated by his religious ideas. Joseph Herman Hertz's theology placed him in the traditional group within the acknowledgement school, although he was influenced by its scientific, romantic and aesthetic branches.

Benjamin J. Elton

Chapter 10 The religious character of the Chief Rabbis and of Anglo-Jewry UR ANALYSIS OF the Chief Rabbis’ theologies and religious policies advances the understanding of the religious history of traditional Jewry in the modern period in two ways. First, we can make specific revisions to the current historiography on the Chief Rabbis, and on some other Jewish communities and their religious leaders. More importantly, our study allows us to help in the construction of a general typology of the Jewish religious response to modernity, which a number of scholars

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970
Abstract only
Benjamin J. Elton

behave – in other words, a theology. This book is an analysis of Britain’s Chief Rabbis over the ninety years between 1880 and 1970, and the impact they made upon Anglo-Jewry’s religious character. In attempting this analysis I examine the theologies of the Chief Rabbis and their contemporaries in depth. So much attention will be paid to theology because, I argue, the key to understanding why individuals took certain actions, why they opposed some individuals and movements and supported others, is differing theologies. Two synagogues could hold a near-identical service

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970
Benjamin J. Elton

Chapter 9 From the Second World War to the Jacobs Affair in this book of the Chief Rabbis’ thought and policies from 1880 until 1945 enables us now to consider developments after that date in their proper context. Scholars have argued that there was a significant shift in the religious character of Anglo-Jewry between 1945 and about 1970, and we can examine whether that was indeed the case. The most significant event in Anglo-Jewish religious history in that period was the Jacobs Affair. It is around that controversy that most discussion is based, and I therefore

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970
History of a divorce
Author: Paul Kelemen

This study examines how the diverse strands of the British left have interpreted the conflict in Palestine. From being overwhelmingly supportive of the Zionist movement’s effort to build a Jewish state in Palestine and welcoming Israel’s establishment the left, in the main, has become increasingly critical of Israel. The Labour Party, for much of its history, had portrayed Zionist settlement as a social democratic experiment that would benefit both Jews and Arabs. Its leaders turned a blind eye to the Zionist movement’s sectarian practices which through its trade union and agricultural co-operatives aimed to build an exclusively Jewish economy. The rise of fascism in Europe and the Holocaust reinforced the party’s support for Jewish state building in Palestine. The British Communist Party was by contrast critical of Zionism but in 1947, following the lead given by the Soviet Union, endorsed the United Nations’ partition of Palestine and subsequently ignored the plight of the Palestinian refugees. It was not until the rise of the new left, in the late 1960s, that Palestinian nationalist aspiration found a voice on the British left and began to command mainstream attention. The book examines the principal debates on the left over the Palestine/Israel conflict and the political realignment that they have helped to shape.

Abstract only
Tony Kushner

even more so. Yet the histories revealed in Anglo-Jewry since 1066 show the richness of previously neglected Jewish communities from the medieval era onwards. They show that the ‘global is everywhere and already, in one way or another, implicated in the local’. 3 Moreover, this study has confirmed Gilman’s proposition that when ‘the center/periphery model is suspended, the frontier becomes the space where the complex interaction of the definitions of self and Other are able to be constructed’. Gilman continues, that Once we understand

in Anglo-Jewry since 1066
Nigel Grizzard

who had to cope with a community composed of, as they saw it, ‘foreigners and their children’. It was not an issue unique to Leeds, a similar problem was faced by Jewish communities in London, Liverpool, Manchester and Glasgow, where established Jewish communities saw themselves numerically increasing, but with people whose way of life differed greatly from their own. Religious life in Jewish Leeds Throughout the period 1901 to 1914, Anglo-Jewry saw a conflict between the views of the Eastern Europe rabbis who came

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
Benjamin J. Elton

professor of philosophy at the University of the Transvaal, and his anti-Boer political activity, which led briefly to his expulsion from the country.17 In 1906 the pulpit of the New West End Synagogue in London became vacant following the death of Simeon Singer, and Hertz applied unsuccessfully; the post went to Joseph Hochman, to whom we shall return later.18 Hertz’s enthusiasm to come to London may have been based, in part at least, on an understanding that his theological position was ideally suited to Anglo-Jewry. Hertz’s experience in Syracuse demonstrated that his

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970