This book presents a rough translation of the Annals of Fulda (AF). By the ninth century annals were one of the major vehicles for historical writing within the Frankish empire. The AF are the principal narrative source written from a perspective east of the Rhine for the period in which the Carolingian Empire gave way to a number of successor kingdoms, including the one which was to become Germany. AF offer the major narrative account of the east Frankish kingdom from the death of Louis the Pious down to the end of the ninth century. The surviving manuscripts are only an echo of what must once have been a much more extensive transmission, to judge by the use made of AF by a number of later annalists and compilers. The brief description of the manuscript tradition must be amplified by looking at the content of the annals. For the years 714 to 830 the work is undoubtedly a compilation which draws on earlier annals, in particular on the Royal Frankish Annals and the Lorsch Frankish Chronicle, with occasional use of other smaller sets of annals and saints' lives. The account of the origins of AF was heavily criticised by Siegmund Hellmann in a number of articles written some fifteen years after the appearance of Friedrich Kurze's edition in 1891.
The AnnalsofFulda and their
By the ninth century annals were one of
the major vehicles for historical writing within the Frankish empire. 1 The earliest annals were
probably no more than brief marginal notes on the tables used for
calculating the date of Easter, but it was soon discovered that an account
of events organised year by year could be not simply an
880s, the so-called AnnalsofFulda were produced in the orbit of the
archbishop of Mainz; the so-called Annals of Xanten were written for
much of that period at, perhaps, Ghent, then Cologne by the one-time
court librarian, Gerward; and the Annals of St-Bertin were written by
Bishop Prudentius at his see of Troyes until 861, when he died, as it
were, pen in hand, leaving his single copy to fall into the hands of the
king, and then into Hincmar’s.28 Hincmar very quickly assumed the
annal writer’s task anonymously but unmistakably. It was an opportunity to
descriptions of disastrous weather events and their harmful impact
upon growing crops, houses, animals and people consistently
feature in medieval annals and chronicles. A typical example is the
following entry in the AnnalsofFulda where we learn that in 872:
Omne tempus aestivum grandinibus variisque tempestatibus
pernoxium extitit; nam grando plurima loca frugibus devastavit;
horrenda etiam tonitrua et fulmina pene cotidie mortalibus interitum minabantur, quorum ictibus praevalidis homines et iumenta in
diversis locis exanimata et in cinerem redacta narrantur.
Gottschalk of Orbais and the predestination controversy in the archdiocese of Rheims
Matthew Bryan Gillis
um die Prädestinationslehre’, Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie, 68
(1986), 153–73; G. Schrimpf, ‘Hraban und der Prädestinationsstreit
des 9. Jahrhunderts’, in R. Kottje and H. Zimmermann, eds, Hrabanus
Maurus: Lehrer, Abt und Bischof (Mainz, 1982), pp. 145–53; and Chazelle,
Crucified God, pp. 181–7.
20 Annales Fuldenses, s.a. 848, ed. F. Kurze, MGH SRG 7 (Hanover, 1891),
pp. 37–8 (trans. T. Reuter, The AnnalsofFulda (Manchester, 1992), p. 28,
21 Hincmar, De praedestinatione Dei, PL 125, col. 84, c. 2.
22 Annales Fuldenses, s.a. 848, ed
), p. 2: ‘Irmingardi augustae scribens congratulatur audito
religionis ipsius fervore, asserens se in precibus assidua pro ea dependere munia.’ Lesne, ‘Hincmar et l’empereur Lothaire’, p. 9, suggests
Ermengard was hostile to Ebbo, having received his abbeys (Lothar
removed Bobbio and Stablo from Ebbo: Hincmar, Epistola 198, p. 211).
27 Hincmar, Epistola 10, MGH Epp. 8, p. 4, after June 846.
28 Hincmar, Epistola 12, MGH Epp. 8, pp. 4–5.
29 Annales Fuldenses, s.a. 846, ed. F. Kurze, MGH SRG 7 (Hanover, 1891),
p. 36 (trans. T. Reuter, The AnnalsofFulda
cross-references to other ninth-century historical sources, especially
annalistic ones of which translations are forthcoming in the Manchester
University Press series. (References to the notes to the AnnalsofFulda are to T. Reuter’s translation.) I have given
references to the standard (usually MGH ) editions of primary
materials in Latin (especially councils, capitularies and papal letters)
(along with the AnnalsofFulda, St-Bertin and St-Vaast) for the
history of the second half of the ninth century.
But Regino was more than an
eyewitness: he was a participant. If the end of the empire dominated
Regino’s historical perspective, this is partly because its
consequences intersected with the dramatic events of his own career,
which by his account was
. Berg and H.-W. Goetz, eds, Ecclesia et regnum: Beiträge zur Geschichte
von Kirche, Recht und Staat im Mittelalter: Festschrift für Franz-Josef
Schmale zu seinem 65. Geburtstag (Bochum, 1989), pp. 39–59, at
106 Liber Pontificalis, Vita Nicolai I, cc. 58–63, II, pp. 162–3 (trans. Davis,
107 AB s.a. 865, p. 118 (trans. Nelson, p. 123): ‘non regulariter sed
108 Annales Fuldenses, ed. F. Kurze, MGH SRG 7 (Hanover, 1891) s.a. 864,
p. 62 (trans. T. Reuter, The AnnalsofFulda, Manchester, 1992, p. 52);
Hludowici et Karoli pactum