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Ninth-century histories, volume II

This book presents a rough translation of the Annals of Fulda (AF). By the ninth century annals were one of the major vehicles for historical writing within the Frankish empire. The AF are the principal narrative source written from a perspective east of the Rhine for the period in which the Carolingian Empire gave way to a number of successor kingdoms, including the one which was to become Germany. AF offer the major narrative account of the east Frankish kingdom from the death of Louis the Pious down to the end of the ninth century. The surviving manuscripts are only an echo of what must once have been a much more extensive transmission, to judge by the use made of AF by a number of later annalists and compilers. The brief description of the manuscript tradition must be amplified by looking at the content of the annals. For the years 714 to 830 the work is undoubtedly a compilation which draws on earlier annals, in particular on the Royal Frankish Annals and the Lorsch Frankish Chronicle, with occasional use of other smaller sets of annals and saints' lives. The account of the origins of AF was heavily criticised by Siegmund Hellmann in a number of articles written some fifteen years after the appearance of Friedrich Kurze's edition in 1891.

This chapter contains the text of The Annals of Fulda in full, translated and annotated by Timothy Reuter.

in The Annals of Fulda
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The Annals of Fulda and their authorship By the ninth century annals were one of the major vehicles for historical writing within the Frankish empire. 1 The earliest annals were probably no more than brief marginal notes on the tables used for calculating the date of Easter, but it was soon discovered that an account of events organised year by year could be not simply an

in The Annals of Fulda

late 880s, the so-called Annals of Fulda were produced in the orbit of the archbishop of Mainz; the so-called Annals of Xanten were written for much of that period at, perhaps, Ghent, then Cologne by the one-time court librarian, Gerward; and the Annals of St-Bertin were written by Bishop Prudentius at his see of Troyes until 861, when he died, as it were, pen in hand, leaving his single copy to fall into the hands of the king, and then into Hincmar’s.28 Hincmar very quickly assumed the annal writer’s task anonymously but unmistakably. It was an opportunity to

in Hincmar of Rheims
Libellus de disposicione totius anni futuri

descriptions of disastrous weather events and their harmful impact upon growing crops, houses, animals and people consistently feature in medieval annals and chronicles. A typical example is the following entry in the Annals of Fulda where we learn that in 872: Omne tempus aestivum grandinibus variisque tempestatibus pernoxium extitit; nam grando plurima loca frugibus devastavit; ­horrenda etiam tonitrua et fulmina pene cotidie mortalibus interitum minabantur, quorum ictibus praevalidis homines et iumenta in diversis locis exanimata et in cinerem redacta narrantur. (The

in Aspects of knowledge
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Gottschalk of Orbais and the predestination controversy in the archdiocese of Rheims

und Hraban um die Prädestinationslehre’, Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie, 68 (1986), 153–73; G. Schrimpf, ‘Hraban und der Prädestinationsstreit des 9. Jahrhunderts’, in R. Kottje and H. Zimmermann, eds, Hrabanus Maurus: Lehrer, Abt und Bischof (Mainz, 1982), pp. 145–53; and Chazelle, Crucified God, pp. 181–7. 20 Annales Fuldenses, s.a. 848, ed. F. Kurze, MGH SRG 7 (Hanover, 1891), pp. 37–8 (trans. T. Reuter, The Annals of Fulda (Manchester, 1992), p. 28, n.7). 21 Hincmar, De praedestinatione Dei, PL 125, col. 84, c. 2. 22 Annales Fuldenses, s.a. 848, ed

in Hincmar of Rheims
Hincmar and Lothar I

), p.  2: ‘Irmingardi augustae scribens congratulatur audito religionis ipsius fervore, asserens se in precibus assidua pro ea dependere munia.’ Lesne, ‘Hincmar et l’empereur Lothaire’, p.  9, suggests Ermengard was hostile to Ebbo, having received his abbeys (Lothar removed Bobbio and Stablo from Ebbo: Hincmar, Epistola 198, p. 211). 27 Hincmar, Epistola 10, MGH Epp. 8, p. 4, after June 846. 28 Hincmar, Epistola 12, MGH Epp. 8, pp. 4–5. 29 Annales Fuldenses, s.a. 846, ed. F. Kurze, MGH SRG 7 (Hanover, 1891), p. 36 (trans. T. Reuter, The Annals of Fulda

in Hincmar of Rheims
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cross-references to other ninth-century historical sources, especially annalistic ones of which translations are forthcoming in the Manchester University Press series. (References to the notes to the Annals of Fulda are to T. Reuter’s translation.) I have given references to the standard (usually MGH ) editions of primary materials in Latin (especially councils, capitularies and papal letters) as

in The Annals of St-Bertin
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narrative sources (along with the Annals of Fulda, St-Bertin and St-Vaast) for the history of the second half of the ninth century. But Regino was more than an eyewitness: he was a participant. If the end of the empire dominated Regino’s historical perspective, this is partly because its consequences intersected with the dramatic events of his own career, which by his account was

in History and politics in late Carolingian and Ottonian Europe
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Hincmar’s world

. Berg and H.-W. Goetz, eds, Ecclesia et regnum: Beiträge zur Geschichte von Kirche, Recht und Staat im Mittelalter: Festschrift für Franz-Josef Schmale zu seinem 65. Geburtstag (Bochum, 1989), pp.  39–59, at 48. 106 Liber Pontificalis, Vita Nicolai I, cc. 58–63, II, pp. 162–3 (trans. Davis, pp. 234–8). 107 AB s.a. 865, p.  118 (trans. Nelson, p.  123): ‘non regulariter sed potentialiter’. 108 Annales Fuldenses, ed. F. Kurze, MGH SRG 7 (Hanover, 1891) s.a. 864, p. 62 (trans. T. Reuter, The Annals of Fulda, Manchester, 1992, p. 52); Hludowici et Karoli pactum

in Hincmar of Rheims