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The Neighbourhood Policy revised
Nikki Ikani

uprisings, this marked the beginning of a period of transition in Egypt (Rutherford 2012 : 35–63; Lynch 2013 ; Kandil 2012 : 222–8). This chapter focuses on changes the EU made to its foreign policy in the wake of the Arab uprisings, in particular on the way the EU reformed the ENP after the uprisings. The EU's policies vis-à-vis its neighbours, hitherto featuring a high degree of inertia, were suddenly presented with a major juncture when the mass protests erupted in January 2011, first in Tunisia, then spreading to Yemen, Sudan, Egypt, Bahrein

in Crisis and change in European Union foreign policy
Derek Averre

is radically different to the simplified image, promoted by Russia, of a strong public authority governing a sovereign state. As a leading MENA expert concludes, ‘the Arab uprisings … have led to a protracted process of contestation and at least the partial unravelling of the authoritarian contract on which prior sovereignty was based’ ( Fawcett 2017 , 804). Russia’s official statements on the Arab

in Russian strategy in the Middle East and North Africa
Open Access (free)
Sovereignty, violence and revolution in the Middle East
Author:

In events that have since become known as the Arab Uprisings or Arab Revolutions, people across the Middle East took to the streets to express their anger and frustration at political climates, demanding political and economic reform. In a number of cases, protest movements were repressed, often violently, with devastating repercussions for human security and peace across the region.

While a number of scholars have sought to understand how the protests occurred, this book looks at sovereignty and the relationship between rulers and ruled to identify and understand both the roots of this anger but also the mechanisms through which regimes were able to withstand seemingly existential pressures and maintain power.

Open Access (free)
The struggle to shape the Middle East

Saudi Arabia and Iran: The struggle to shape the Middle East provides a detailed exploration of the rivalry between Riyadh and Tehran across the Middle East. As one of the most compelling rivalries in international politics, the Saudi–Iranian competition for regional influence has impacted on a number of different locales. After the onset of the Arab Uprisings and the fragmentation of regime–society relations, communal relations have continued to degenerate, as societal actors retreat into sub-state identities, whilst difference becomes increasingly violent, spilling out beyond state borders. The power of religion – and the trans-state nature of religious linkages – thus provides the means for actors, such as Saudi Arabia and Iran, to exert influence over a number of groups across the region. Given these issues, the contributions to this volume, and the collection as a whole, have two main aims: firstly, to explore the nature of the rivalry between Saudi Arabia and Iran within the contemporary Middle East; and secondly, to consider the impact of this rivalry upon regional and domestic politics across the Middle East. This volume examines how the rivalry is perceived in both Saudi Arabia and Iran, as well as in the contestation over religious legitimacy. It also offers in-depth explorations of the impact of this rivalry upon five regional states: Iraq, Syria, Bahrain, Lebanon and Yemen, all sites of contestation between Riyadh and Tehran, albeit in different guises. In doing so, it highlights how the rivalry is shaped by the contingencies of time and space.

The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood after the 2013 coup
Author:

Surviving repression tells the story of the Muslim Brotherhood after the 2013 coup. The movement quickly rose to power following the 2011 Arab uprisings, but its premature removal marked the beginning of the harshest repression of its troubled history. Forced into exile, the Brotherhood and its members are faced with the monumental task of having to rebuild a fragmented organisation. The book looks at this new era in the movement’s history through the perspective of individual members, relying on conversations with current and former members from across the generational and organisational spectrums. It puts emphasis on their experiences, perspectives and emotions to better understand how their responses to repression are affecting the movement as a whole. It is the first book to comprehensively address the Brotherhood’s trajectories after the 2013 coup, and to examine the external and internal challenges it faces while trying to rebuild in exile. Surviving repression offers an invaluable insight into the main strategical, ideological and organisational debates dividing the Brotherhood and reveals that, in order to survive, the movement needs to answer two fundamental challenges. These are: what kind of organisation the Brotherhood wants to be moving forward; and whether or not it is willing to renegotiate the relationship between the movement and its members in order to maximise survival and resilience. Overall, it shows that the main forces driving the Brotherhood’s evolution after 2013 are fundamental questions about organisational identity, its members’ increased agency, and growing calls to reform the movement’s core structures and principles.

Plans and politics in Tunisia
Author:

Transitional Justice in Process is the first book to comprehensively study the Tunisian transitional justice process. After the fall of the Ben Ali regime in 2011, Tunisia started dealing with its authoritarian past very early on and initiated a comprehensive transitional justice process, with the Truth and Dignity Commission as its central institution. However, instead of bringing about peace and justice, transitional justice soon became an arena of contention. The book explores through a process lens how the transitional justice process evolved and why and explains how it relates to the political transition. Based on extensive field research in Tunisia and the United States, and interviews with a broad range of Tunisian and international stakeholders and decision-makers, the book provides an in-depth analysis of a crucial time period, beginning with the first initiatives to deal with the past and seek justice and accountability. It includes discussions of the development and design of the transitional justice mandate and, finally, looks at the performance of transitional justice institutions in practice. It examines the role of international justice professionals in different stages of the process, as well as the alliances and frictions between different actor groups that cut across the often-assumed local–international divide. The book therefore makes an essential contribution to literature on the domestic and international politics of transitional justice and in particular to our understanding of the Tunisian transitional justice process.

Simon Mabon

not necessarily the literal manifestation of Agamben’s bare life, political meaning had been stripped from groups across the region, wherein individuals are bound by the laws of the state yet not protected by such laws. For Agamben, once in this position, there is no escape and one should accept the position of ‘being thus’.2 Yet looking across the region in the early months of 2011, it was difficult to view events as the acceptance of the status quo. Instead, what quickly became known as the Arab Uprisings was seen as the rejection of being thus and the

in Houses built on sand
Robert Mason

international powers in the region. 15 The Arab uprisings created a new impetus for those with the power to intervene to cushion against ontological threats, boost their prospects towards middle powerhood and gain ground over regional adversaries. 16 Morganthau's Hobbesian view is relevant especially, in authoritarian contexts and absolute monarchies which pursue absolute power as part of their identities and values, especially within youthful leaderships whose attitude to

in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates
Open Access (free)
Simon Mabon

211 8 Houses built on sand The crisis consists in the fact that the old [order] is dying and the new cannot be born; in this interregnum a large variety of morbid symptoms appear. Antonio Gramsci, Passato e presente Ana wa akhi ala ibn ammi, ana wa ibn ammi ala algharib. [My brother and I against our cousin, my cousin and I against a stranger.] An old Beouin saying In the fallout from the Arab Uprisings, a number of parallels have been drawn with the Thirty Years’ War across Europe in the seventeenth century.1 Take the opening lines of an article by Richard

in Houses built on sand
Abstract only
The Arab Spring and Russia
Derek Averre

) But the intellectual challenge of understanding Russia’s approach to the Arab uprisings goes far beyond the paradigm of Cold War confrontation, so often the starting point for analysis by Western experts. The Arab Spring has exposed deep fissures between the principles underpinning the integrity of the international system and the actions of the leading external powers. Inconsistencies in policymaking

in Russian strategy in the Middle East and North Africa