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Power in cross-border Cooperation

The volume explores a question that sheds light on the contested, but largely cooperative, nature of Arctic governance in the post-Cold War period: How do power relations matter – and how have they mattered – in shaping cross-border cooperation and diplomacy in the Arctic? Through carefully selected case studies – from Russia’s role in the Arctic Council to the diplomacy of indigenous peoples’ organisations – this book seeks to shed light on how power performances are enacted constantly to shore up Arctic cooperation in key ways. The conceptually driven nature of the enquiry makes the book appropriate reading for courses in international relations and political geography, while the carefully selected case studies lend themselves to courses on Arctic politics.

Conservationism and the ENGO in the Circumpolar North

The World Wide Fund for Nature/World Wildlife Fund (WWF) is one of the most recognizable international environmental non-governmental organizations in the world. The iconic panda symbol is known around the globe but in recent years a different bear has taken centre stage in the organization’s international work: the polar bear. The Arctic has become one of the organization’s key focus areas in the twenty-first century, but what the general public is less aware of is the fact that WWF has been involved in its northern work for decades. Within academic literature about WWF’s Arctic and northern engagement, much attention is given to cursory references to the organization’s participation as an observer within the Arctic region’s pre-eminent forum for environmental protection and economic development work – the Arctic Council. This book delves into the work of WWF in the Arctic and the North and focuses on how it has built its role in regional discussions and decision-making in order to engage different local, national, regional and international audiences.

New stories on rafted ice
Elana Wilson Rowe

1 Arctic international relations: new stories on rafted ice In October 1988, an Inupiaq hunter saw that three grey whales were trapped in the sea ice off of Point Barrow (Nuvuk), Alaska. These younger ‘teenage’ whales were on a migratory route between Arctic waters and the warm seas of southern California and Mexico, but they had failed to leave their northern feeding ground in time and had become trapped. The North Slope community immediately set to work attempting to break the ice and create breathing holes for the trapped whales. An attempt to borrow a barge

in Arctic governance
Robert G. David

icebound in the Arctic. Although the Orient, represented in this case by Jerusalem, was no doubt popular, the Ross panorama was the one that was extensively featured on the advertisements. It had, it was claimed, already been seen by 47,600 people in Leeds and it was drawing crowds from both Hull and the region beyond. Exhibiting the panorama in Hull was an astute move by its promoters, as the substantial

in The Arctic in the British imagination 1818–1914
Robert G. David

The press in its various forms was instrumental in the dissemination of Arctic representations. Its rapid expansion in the second half of the nineteenth century was the result of technological improvements in the industry, such as the development of more efficient printing presses. The faster distribution of news, initially through the railway system and later through the electric

in The Arctic in the British imagination 1818–1914
Travel narratives, paintings and photographs
Robert G. David

those given by Nansen to very large audiences, had the widest influence. Original works of Arctic art and photography were rarely exhibited, and then only to small audiences, so it was as illustrations in texts that they reached a wider public. In this chapter key themes in Arctic images which impacted on subsequent representations will be explored through text, painting and photography. Defining the

in The Arctic in the British imagination 1818–1914
Exploring Nineteenth-Century Polar Gothic Space
Katherine Bowers

This article considers a unified polar Gothic as a way of examining texts set in Arctic and Antarctic space. Through analysis of Coleridge‘s The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Shelleys Frankenstein, and Poe‘s The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket , the author creates a framework for understanding polar Gothic, which includes liminal space, the supernatural, the Gothic sublime, ghosts and apparitions, and imperial Gothic anxieties about the degradation of civilisation. Analysing Verne‘s scientific-adventure novel The Adventures of Captain Hatteras (1866) with this framework, the author contextualises the continued public interest in the lost Franklin expedition and reflects on nineteenth-century polar Gothic anxieties in the present day. Polar space creates an uncanny potential for seeing ones own self and examining what lies beneath the surface of ones own rational mind.

Gothic Studies
Robert G. David

The Golliwogg’s Polar Adventures , published in 1900, drew on adult representations of the Arctic and will have confirmed and reinforced children’s perceptions of the region. In the story Golliwogg and his companions set out for the North Pole, which at the time was increasingly becoming the main objective of Arctic exploration. Their journey takes them across a white

in The Arctic in the British imagination 1818–1914
Danita Catherine Burke

For NGOs, ‘[r]elationships are the building blocks of networks and are key to their effectiveness. Although an NGO will struggle to be legitimate in the eyes of all of its stakeholders, the quality of its relationships remains important’ (Hudson, 2001 : 332). Given the importance of relationships in NGO work, this chapter seeks to offer a brief triangulation of the views expressed by WWF representatives about their organization and why it is generally well received in Arctic and northern governance discussions. In particular, this chapter

in WWF and Arctic environmentalism

The Arctic region has been the subject of much popular writing. This book considers nineteenth-century representations of the Arctic, and draws upon an extensive range of evidence that will allow the 'widest connections' to emerge from a 'cross-disciplinary analysis' using different methodologies and subject matter. It positions the Arctic alongside more thoroughly investigated theatres of Victorian enterprise. In the nineteenth century, most images were in the form of paintings, travel narratives, lectures given by the explorers themselves and photographs. The book explores key themes in Arctic images which impacted on subsequent representations through text, painting and photography. For much of the nineteenth century, national and regional geographical societies promoted exploration, and rewarded heroic endeavor. The book discusses images of the Arctic which originated in the activities of the geographical societies. The Times provided very low-key reporting of Arctic expeditions, as evidenced by its coverage of the missions of Sir John Franklin and James Clark Ross. However, the illustrated weekly became one of the main sources of popular representations of the Arctic. The book looks at the exhibitions of Arctic peoples, Arctic exploration and Arctic fauna in Britain. Late nineteenth-century exhibitions which featured the Arctic were essentially nostalgic in tone. The Golliwogg's Polar Adventures, published in 1900, drew on adult representations of the Arctic and will have confirmed and reinforced children's perceptions of the region. Text books, board games and novels helped to keep the subject alive among the young.