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Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
The Irish and the English in the seventeenth century
Author: Ian Campbell

Inspired both by debates about the origins of the modern ideology of race and also by controversy over the place of Ireland and the Irish in theories of empire in the early modern Atlantic world, Renaissance Humanism and Ethnicity before Race argues that ethnic discourse among the elite in early modern Ireland was grounded firmly in the Renaissance Humanism and Aristotelianism which dominated all the European universities before the Enlightenment. Irish and English, Catholic and Protestant, all employed theories of human society based on Aristotle’s Politics and the natural law of the medieval universities to construct or dismantle the categories of civility and barbarism. The elites operating in Ireland also shared common resources, taught in the universities, for arguing about the human body and its ability to transmit hereditary characteristics. Both in Ireland and elsewhere in Europe, these theories of human society and the human body underwent violent changes in the late seventeenth century under the impact of the early Enlightenment. These changes were vital to the development of race as we know it.

Ian Campbell

6 Irish Enlightenment, human societies, and human bodies ሉሊ June 1641 saw the printing in Dublin of surely the strangest book ever dedicated to James Ussher, archbishop of Armagh. Written by two Dutch physicians, Arnold and Gerard Boate, the Philosophia Naturalis Reformata (Reformed Philosophy of Nature) claimed to be a complete refutation of Aristotelian philosophy.1 Certainly, the book’s main subject was a vigorous and lengthy attack on Aristotle’s hylomorphism: the doctrine that all physical objects are composed of matter and form. It was normal for orthodox

in Renaissance humanism and ethnicity before race
Abstract only
Philippa Byrne

who advised a prince, bishop, earl or abbot that one judicial solution fitted all judicial dilemmas. What did change – and the reason why c.1250 marks a finishing point for this study – was the intellectual background and the intellectual organisation of justice and mercy. With the reception of Aristotle’s Ethics in the schools of Europe, new, Aristotelian ideas of equity ( epikeia ) meant the act of judgment was fundamentally reconfigured. The individual moral choice of the judge – between justice and mercy – became less significant. One is

in Justice and mercy
‘Lost Ground’
Jennifer M. Jeffers

trauma shared is too much to bear. The embarrassment of acknowledging the pain of the other side, the admission of wrong-doing, and the knowledge that something has been awakened by a long-dead Catholic saint is too much for the upstanding Protestant family to bear. 142 William Trevor: Revaluations The ‘pity and fear’ awakened are all the more tragic because Milton’s mother is implicated in his murder, which, from an Aristotelian perspective, creates a sense of ‘tragic pleasure’. It is significant, therefore, that although Garfield is primarily responsible for the

in William Trevor
Spectacle, allegory and the wound of theatre
Carl Lavery

reflective mimesis in any detailed philosophical sense, it is evidently bound up with a rejection of Aristotelian poetics. Differently from Plato who distrusted theatre because of its potential for epistemic anarchy, Aristotle conceived of theatre as a method of instruction, a form of pedagogy through play: The instinct for imitation is inherent in man from his earliest days: he differs from other animals in that he is the most imitative of creatures, and he learns his earliest lessons by imitation. Also inborn in all of us is the instinct to enjoy works of

in The politics of Jean Genet’s late theatre
Catastrophic time in Barker’s The Bite of the Night
Jay Gipson-King

framework of Audience Time, Dramatic Time and Narrative Time in order to break down and analyse temporal experience in the theatre. Audience time, as I define it, is time as experienced by a spectator sitting in the house. This includes the duration of the performance, the number and spacing of intermissions and each spectator’s personal absorption or boredom with the performance, as the case may be. Dramatic time refers to the progression of the plot or dramatic action. Does the story proceed from beginning to middle to end in Aristotelian fashion? Does the action move

in Howard Barker’s Art of Theatre
Mind, soul and intellectual disability
Irina Metzler

boundaries between theology, philosophy and psychology as they are today were non-existent in the Middle Ages. Soul ( anima ) and mind ( animus ) are linked for the Christian philosopher; the human soul therefore is a thinking soul as well as being an animating force. Philosophically, and subsequently judicially, medieval ID was considered the absence of reason, the irrational, which contrasted the intellectually disabled with the bowdlerised Aristotelian concept of man as the rational animal. The ‘rational animal’ was a concept that came to be ubiquitously cited in

in Fools and idiots?
Ian Campbell

5 Irish doctors and theologians on heredity and the human soul ሉሊ Writers on nobility, genealogy, and physiognomics frequently alluded to heredity and the hereditary transmission of virtue and vice, but how did learned men in the seventeenth century characterise heredity itself? This chapter, the second of two on ethnicity and the human body, will explore those two fields where Aristotelians might have been expected to confront the problem of heredity directly. First, contemporary physicians were keenly interested in hereditary disease, not least because the

in Renaissance humanism and ethnicity before race
The Earl of Essex and Lady Penelope Rich
Chris Laoutaris

English, Spanish and French, she manipulated resonant literary and iconographic traditions in ways which were to prove explosive. The Romance mode, the aristocratic and courtly postures linked to melancholy, and the discourses of Aristotelianism and Tacitism which informed theoretical models of civil government, provided her with topoi which she appropriated and skilfully transformed for political ends

in Essex