Imperial power, both formal and informal, and research in the natural sciences were closely dependent in the nineteenth century. This book examines a portion of the mass-produced juvenile literature, focusing on the cluster of ideas connected with Britain's role in the maintenance of order and the spread of civilization. It discusses the political economy of Western ecological systems, and the consequences of their extension to the colonial periphery, particularly in forms of forest conservation. Progress and consumerism were major constituents of the consensus that helped stabilise the late Victorian society, but consumerism only works if it can deliver the goods. From 1842 onwards, almost all major episodes of coordinated popular resistance to colonial rule in India were preceded by phases of vigorous resistance to colonial forest control. By the late 1840s, a limited number of professional positions were available for geologists in British imperial service, but imperial geology had a longer pedigree. Modern imperialism or 'municipal imperialism' offers a broader framework for understanding the origins, long duration and persistent support for overseas expansion which transcended the rise and fall of cabinets or international realignments in the 1800s. Although medical scientists began to discern and control the microbiological causes of tropical ills after the mid-nineteenth century, the claims for climatic causation did not undergo a corresponding decline. Arthur Pearson's Pearson's Magazine was patriotic, militaristic and devoted to royalty. The book explores how science emerged as an important feature of the development policies of the Colonial Office (CO) of the colonial empire.
ritual annual commemoration of Nelson’s Trafalgar victory, Navy League activists invited the masses to forge an association with the heroic spirit of the national past, a common heritage that apparently superseded considerations of class difference. 28 British fascists in a later period would similarly engage in solemn ritual commemorations of dead national heroes, particularly the dead of the First World War generation. The National Defence Association, which boasted the editor of the Morning Post , H. A. Gwynne, and the Daily Express publisher, C. ArthurPearson
The church as sacred space places the reader at the heart of medieval
religious life, standing inside the church with the medieval laity in order to
ask what the church meant to them and why. It examines the church as a building,
idea, and community, and explores the ways in which the sanctity of the church
was crucial to its place at the centre of lay devotion and parish life. At a
time when the parish church was facing competition for lay attention, and
dissenting movements such as Lollardy were challenging the relevance of the
material church, the book examines what was at stake in discussions of sanctity
and its manifestations. Exploring a range of Middle English literature alongside
liturgy, architecture, and material culture, the book explores the ways in which
the sanctity of the church was constructed and maintained for the edification of
the laity. Drawing on a wide range of contemporary theoretical approaches, the
book offers a reading of the church as continually produced and negotiated by
the rituals, performances, and practices of its lay communities, who were
constantly being asked to attend to its material form, visual decorations, and
significance. The meaning of the church was a dominant question in late-medieval
religious culture and this book provides an invaluable context for students and
academics working on lay religious experience and canonical Middle English
Women Art Workers constitutes the first comprehensive history of the network of women who worked at the heart of the English Arts and Crafts movement from the 1870s to the 1930s. Challenging the long-standing assumption that the Arts and Crafts simply revolved around celebrated male designers like William Morris, this book instead offers a new social and cultural account of the movement, which simultaneously reveals the breadth of the imprint of women art workers upon the making of modern society. Thomas provides unprecedented insight into how women – working in fields such as woodwork, textiles, sculpture, painting, and metalwork – navigated new authoritative roles as ‘art workers’ by asserting expertise across a range of interconnected cultures so often considered in isolation: from the artistic to the professional, intellectual, entrepreneurial, and domestic. Through examination of newly discovered institutional archives and private papers, and a wide range of unstudied advertisements, letters, manuals, photographs, and calling cards, Women Art Workers elucidates the critical importance of the spaces around which women conceptualised alternative creative and professional lifestyles: guild halls, exhibitions, homes, studios, workshops, and the cityscape. Shattering the traditional periodisation of the movement as ‘Victorian’, this research reveals that the early twentieth century was a critical juncture at which women art workers became ever more confident in promoting their own vision of the Arts and Crafts. Shaped by their precarious gendered positions, they opened up the movement to a wider range of social backgrounds and interests, and redirected the movement’s radical potential into contemporary women-centred causes.
This book explores for the first time women’s leading roles in animal protection in nineteenth-century Britain. Victorian women founded pioneering bodies such as the Battersea Dogs’ Home, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, and the first anti-vivisection society. They intervened directly to stop abuses, promoted animal welfare, and schooled the young in humane values via the Band of Mercy movement. They also published literature that, through strongly argued polemic or through imaginative storytelling, notably in Anna Sewell’s Black Beauty, showed man’s unjustifiable cruelty to animals. In all these enterprises, they encountered opponents who sought to discredit and thwart their efforts by invoking age-old notions of female ‘sentimentality’ or ‘hysteria’, which supposedly needed to be checked by ‘masculine’ pragmatism, rationality and broadmindedness, especially where men’s field sports were concerned. To counter any public perception of extremism, conservative bodies such as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals for long excluded women from executive roles, despite their crucial importance as donors and grassroots activists. However, women’s growing opportunities for public work in philanthropic projects and the development of militant feminism, running in parallel with campaigns for the vote, gave them greater boldness in expressing their distinctive view of animal–human relations, in defiance of patriarchy. In analysing all these historic factors, the book unites feminist perspectives, especially constructions of gender, with the fast-developing field of animal–human history.
national efficiency we can see attempts to create a new consensus around
a single national purpose. 7
How can we relate the science content of popular
periodicals to the negotiation of social consensus and to the transition
from a late Victorian to an Edwardian mentality, from complacency to
Always interested in something, ArthurPearson was never
interested in anything for
. Baden-Powell, Scouting for Boys (London, C. ArthurPearson, 1907),
35 R. Baden-Powell, Yarns for Boy Scouts (London, C. ArthurPearson, 1909),
p. 117. The Edwardian obsession with Arthurian legend can be found in
the pageant craze of the early twentieth century. See P. J. Waller, Town, City
and Nation. England 1850–1914 (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1983), p. 314.
36 P. Wilkinson, ‘English youth movements, 1908–1930’, Journal of Contemporary
History, 4:2 (1969), 14.
37 Wilkinson, ‘English youth movements, 1908–1930’, 14.
38 M. Blanch, ‘Imperialism, nationalism and
The persistence of left-nationalism in post-war Wales
older members’.81 Before the Second World War, branches had turned
to sport as a possible means of attracting young people, largely leaving
youth branches to organise themselves. But after the war, the party sought
an alternative approach, seeking instead to educate themselves about the
desires and aspirations of young people. In Pontypridd, the sitting MP, ArthurPearson, told his colleagues that ‘we must educate ourselves’ as to the interests
and needs of the emerging generation, but most of them refused to listen
to his plea. They believed in the traditional model
Accessible knightly masculinities in children’s Arthuriana, 1903–11
Nelson Couch, ‘Howard Pyle’s The Story of King Arthur and his
Knights and the Bourgeois Boy Reader’, Arthuriana 13:2 (2003), p. 208.
Lucien Agosta suggests that Pyle was aware of the ‘apparently unappeasable late nineteenth-century appetite for Arthurian works’ following
Forbush’s creation of the Knights of King Arthur, and therefore suggested
to publisher Scribner’s in 1902 that he write a book telling the story of
Arthur. See Agosta, Howard Pyle, p. 43.
42 Robert Baden-Powell, Yarns for Boy Scouts Told Round the Camp Fire
(London: C. ArthurPearson, 1910), p. 117
The English union in the writings of Arthur Mee and G.K.
on the Fleet Street spectrum,
Chesterton as a leading columnist for the Liberal newspaper The
Daily News before his resignation in 1913, and Mee as a
protégé of Alfred Harmsworth. Chesterton loathed
Harmsworth’s ‘Yellow Press’ empire, along with
that of ArthurPearson (Chesterton, 1905 : 97–105).
Yet despite these differences, Chesterton and Mee