Author: Roger Forshaw

This volume discusses the history, culture and social conditions of one of the less well-known periods of ancient Egypt, the Saite or 26th Dynasty (664–525 BC). In the 660s BC Egypt was a politically fragmented and occupied country. This is an account of how Psamtek I, a local ruler from Sais in northern Egypt, declared independence from its overlord, the Assyrian Empire, and within ten years brought about the reunification of the country after almost four hundred years of disunity and periods of foreign domination. Over the next century and a half, the Saite rulers were able to achieve stability and preserve Egypt’s independence as a sovereign state against powerful foreign adversaries. Central government was established, a complex financial administration was developed and Egypt’s military forces were reorganised. The Saites successfully promoted foreign trade, peoples from different countries settled in Egypt and Egypt recovered a prominent role in the Mediterranean world. There were innovations in culture, religion and technology, and Egypt became prosperous. This era was a high-achieving one and is often neglected in the literature devoted to ancient Egypt. Egypt of the Saite Pharaohs, 664–525 BC reveals the dynamic nature of the period, the astuteness of the Saite rulers and their considerable achievements in the political, economic, administrative and cultural spheres.

Roger Forshaw

completed. Few details are   egypt of the saite pharaohs known of the campaign by Shabitqo into Lower Egypt to achieve this objective, but it was probably undertaken around 711–709 BC, and by Year 2 of his reign he was in control of Memphis.30 Assyria and early contacts with Nubia The earliest contacts between Nubia and Assyria can be dated even earlier than these Egyptian campaigns. An Assyrian administrative record, Nimrud Wine List No. 9 (c. 732 BC), includes references to Nubians present at the court of the Assyrian king, Tiglath-Pileser (744–727 BC).31 The

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Layard’s Assyrian discoveries and the formations of British national identity
Frederick N. Bohrer

by Assyria magnifies and makes even more evident the discontinuities upon which a nation itself can be constructed. Layard’s discoveries were made in Mesopotamia at the behest of Stratford Canning. Canning was then British ambassador to the Ottoman empire, an eminent figure in the British Foreign Service who was then at the height of his power. Layard, by contrast, was an unpaid and irregular assistant

in Cultural identities and the aesthetics of Britishness
Author: Laura Varnam

The church as sacred space places the reader at the heart of medieval religious life, standing inside the church with the medieval laity in order to ask what the church meant to them and why. It examines the church as a building, idea, and community, and explores the ways in which the sanctity of the church was crucial to its place at the centre of lay devotion and parish life. At a time when the parish church was facing competition for lay attention, and dissenting movements such as Lollardy were challenging the relevance of the material church, the book examines what was at stake in discussions of sanctity and its manifestations. Exploring a range of Middle English literature alongside liturgy, architecture, and material culture, the book explores the ways in which the sanctity of the church was constructed and maintained for the edification of the laity. Drawing on a wide range of contemporary theoretical approaches, the book offers a reading of the church as continually produced and negotiated by the rituals, performances, and practices of its lay communities, who were constantly being asked to attend to its material form, visual decorations, and significance. The meaning of the church was a dominant question in late-medieval religious culture and this book provides an invaluable context for students and academics working on lay religious experience and canonical Middle English texts.

Foreign relations and internal reforms
Roger Forshaw

to Psamtek’s twenty-ninth regnal year (635 BC).19 It is difficult to be certain exactly when the siege took place as there is little further archaeological evidence, although it would seem probable that Ashdod came under Egyptian control between 655 and 630 BC.20 Ashdod had previously been under Assyrian control, but by this time the power and influence of Assyria had been diminishing for a number of years. It had been weakened by constant warfare, corruption, a deteriorating political structure and internal struggles for leadership, and so was no longer the power

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Reunification of Egypt
Roger Forshaw

. They make reference to Gyges, King of Lydia, who at that time was engaged in expanding his territory on the Anatolian peninsula. Gyges is chronicled as having a dream, the outcome of which influenced him to send an emissary to Nineveh taking gifts as well as a number of captive Cimmerian prisoners, who had been seized ravaging the Lydian countryside. Gyges was perhaps attempting to obtain Assyrian assistance in Lydia’s battles with the Cimmerians. These gifts were specified as presents and not tribute as Assyria did not dominate Lydia nor was Lydia an ally of Assyria

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Vybarr Cregan-Reid

Birch (then the Keeper of Oriental Antiquities at the British Museum) had read a sober address to the Society the previous year, urging caution and patience in the hermeneutic endeavour of its membership. There has been some conflict between Assyrian and Jewish history, and although Assyrian scholars, dealing with the special subject of Assyria, naturally lean with favour to the information the monuments of Nineveh afford, it is by no means sure that the Assyrians, especially in speaking of foreign nations, may not have recorded errors. As the research advances, the

in Discovering Gilgamesh
Nekau II and Psamtek II
Roger Forshaw

Harran, an engagement in which Nekau was defeated and forced to withdraw west of the Euphrates.1 A year later Nekau was back campaigning in Syria–Palestine, and he returned to Harran to challenge the Babylonians and their Median allies once again. On the march through Judah at Megiddo he encountered Josiah, the ruler of Judah, and in a confrontation that ensued Josiah was killed. The circumstances of Josiah’s death are described in II Kings (23.29–30): ‘In his days, Pharaoh Nekau king of Egypt went up to the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates, King Josiah went to

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Abstract only
The British Empire and the Crystal Palace, 1851–1911
Jeffrey Auerbach

between Europeans and non-Europeans. The enlarged Sydenham Crystal Palace was the successor to the Hyde Park building, and it remained standing in south London from 1854 to 1936. Its displays illustrate how the British increasingly began to view themselves as heirs to the great ancient empires such as Egypt and Assyria. But they were also mindful that, just as those once dominant empires had collapsed, so too might

in Exhibiting the empire
‘Indian’ art at the Sydenham Palace
Sarah Victoria Turner

Assyria at the back of the Assyrian Court, we enter a department appropriated as an Indian Court.4 The first Indian Court at Sydenham, as the description of the revised official guide book of 1860 made clear, was not exactly prominent. Visitors had to wrest themselves from the ‘wonders of Assyrian art’ – a hybrid amalgamation of casts organised by James Fergusson from ancient Mesopotamian sites, which included casts of impressive winged bulls from objects that had been moved from Khorsabad, in present-day Iraq, to the Louvre – and enter the unprepossessing entrance to

in After 1851